Telangana

TELANGANA

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Telangana Wikipedia



Telangana

తెల౦గాణ

تلنگانہ
State of India
Montage of Telangana. Clockwise from top left: Charminar, painting of Lord Rama at Bhadrachalam, Kacheguda Railway Station, Bhongir Fort, Buddha statue in Hussain sagar, NTPC Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Station.


Montage of Telangana.


Clockwise from top left: Charminar, painting of Lord Rama at Bhadrachalam, Kacheguda Railway Station, Bhongir Fort, Buddha statue in Hussain sagar, NTPC Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Station.
Official logo of Telanganaతెల౦గాణتلنگانہ


Seal of Telangana
Location of Telangana (marked in red) in India


Location of Telangana (marked in red) in India
Coordinates (Hyderabad): 17°21′58″N 78°28′34″E / 17.366°N 78.476°E / 17.366; 78.476Coordinates: 17°21′58″N 78°28′34″E / 17.366°N 78.476°E / 17.366; 78.476
CountryIndia
RegionSouth India, Deccan
Established2 June 2014
CapitalHyderabad†
Largest cityHyderabad
Districts10
Government
 • GovernorE. S. L. Narasimhan
 • Chief ministerKalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao (TRS)
 • LegislatureBicameral (119 + 40 seats)
 • Lok Sabha constituencies17
 • High CourtHigh Court of Judicature at Hyderabad
Area†
 • Total114,840 km2 (44,340 sq mi)
Area rank12th
Population (2011)
 • Total35,193,978
 • Rank12th
 • Density310/km2 (790/sq mi)
DemonymTelanganite
Time zoneIST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 codeIN-xx (not assigned)
Vehicle registrationTS
Literacy66.50%
Official languageTelugu, Urdu
Websitetelangana.gov.in
^† Joint Capital with Andhra Pradesh
Telangana (Listeni/θɛlənˈɡɑːnə/) is a land-locked state in South India. Its area of 114,840 km2 makes it the twelfth-largest state in the country. Most of it was part of the princely state of Hyderabad (Medak and Warangal Divisions), which was ruled by the Nizams during the British Raj until 1947, and later until 1948, when it joined the Union of India. In 1956, Hyderabad state was dissolved and Andhra State was merged with the Telangana region of the state of Hyderabad to form the state of Andhra Pradesh. On 2 June 2014, Telangana became the 29th state of India, consisting of the ten north-western districts of Andhra Pradesh with Hyderabad as its capital. The city of Hyderabad is the joint capital for Telangana and the successor state of Andhra Pradesh for the period of ten years.

Telangana is bordered by the states of Andhra Pradesh to the south and east, Maharashtra to the north and north-west, Karnataka to the west and Chhattisgarh to the north-east. Telangana has an area of 114,840 square kilometres (44,340 sq mi), and a population of 35,286,757 (2011 census). Hyderabad, Warangal, Nizamabad, Karimnagar and Khammam are the major cities in the state.



Hyderabad state in 1909

Contents

              Etymology

              The name Telangana is thought to have been derived from the word Trilinga, as in Trilinga Desa, which translates to "the country of the three lingas". According to a Hindu legend, Shiva descended in lingam form on three mountains, Kaleshwaram, Srisailam and Draksharama, which marked the boundaries of the Trilingadesa, later called Telinga, Telunga or Telugu.

              The name "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada.

              One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul (14th century C.E.), who was called the Tilangani, which implies that he was from Tilangana. He was the commander of Warangal Fort (Telugu Kaṭaka Pāludu).

              History

              Early history




              The Satavahana dynasty had its roots in Koti Lingala on the banks of the Godavari River, in present day Karimnagar district.
              The Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE) became the dominant power in the area. It originated from the lands between the Godavari and Krishna rivers. After the decline of the Satavahanas, various dynasties, such as the Vakataka, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Rashtrakuta and Western Chalukya, ruled the area.

              Kakatiya Dynasty




              Torana built by the Kakatiyas in Warangal in 1163



              Ramappa Temple, built in 1213 by ruler Recherla Rudra of Kakatiyas
              The area experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty that ruled most parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh and Telangana from 1083 to 1323 CE. Ganapatideva, who came to power in 1199, was known as the greatest of the Kakatiyas, and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Telugu Cholas, who accepted his suzerainty in the year 1210. He established order in his vast dominion that stretched from the Godavari delta in the east to Raichur (in modern day Karnataka) in the west and from Karimnagar and Bastar (in modern day Chhattisgarh) in the north to Srisailam and Tripurantakam, near Ongole, in the south. It was during his reign that the Golkonda fort was constructed. Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved with the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323.

              Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi's

              The area came under the Muslim rule of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century, followed by the Bahmani Sultanate. Quli Qutb Mulk, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518. On 21 September 1687, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golkonda fort.



              Charminar in Hyderabad
              In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed to be viceroy of the Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (meaning "Administrator of the Realm"). In 1724, he defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba and took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty. He named the area Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were called Asif Jahi nizams or nizams of Hyderabad. The Medak and Warangal divisions were ruled by the nizams.

              When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the nizams. Nizam [who?] signed a subsidiary alliance in 1799 with British and lost its control over the state's defence and foreign affairs. Hyderabad State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India. Nizam [who?] in two instances ceded the Coastal and Rayalaseema districts of his dominion to British due to his inability to pay for the help that British rendered in his wars against Vijayanagar and Tipu Sultan armies. The ceded Coastal and Rayalaseema districts were called Sarkar and Ceded areas and were part of the British Madras Presidency until India's independence and part of Madras state until 1953.

              Nagarjuna Sagar Dam (In Urdu: نگارجنا ساگر ڈیم) is a masonry dam on the Krishna River at Nagarjuna Sagar in the border of Nalgonda district of Telangana State and Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh State, India. The proposal to construct a dam to use the excess waters of the Krishna river was planned by the British Engineers in 1903 on the supervision of Hyderabad Nizams.



              Telangana was the seat of numerous dynasties. Chowmahalla Palace was home to the nizams of Hyderabad.

              Post-independence

              When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with the Indian Union and wanted to remain independent under the special provisions given to princely states. The government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 in Operation Polo. The central government appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as first chief minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950. He administered the state with the help of English educated bureaucrats from Madras State and Bombay State, who were part of British India and familiar with Indian system unlike the bureaucrats of Hyderabad state who used completely different administrative system from British India and used Urdu as the state language.

              In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected chief minister of Hyderabad State in the first democratic election. During this time, there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send back bureaucrats from Madras state, and to strictly implement rule by natives of Hyderabad.

              Meanwhile, Telugu-speaking areas in the Northern Circars and Rayalaseema regions were carved out of the erstwhile Madras state as a result of the 'fast unto death' protest by Potti Sreeramulu to create Andhra State in 1953.

              Telangana Rebellion

              Main article: Telangana Rebellion
              The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the communists. It took place in the former princely state of Hyderabad between 1946 and 1951. It was led by the Communist Party of India (CPI).

              The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes. It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the king of Hyderabad State. The violent phase of the movement ended after the central government sent in the army. Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the framework of Indian democracy.

              States Reorganisation Commission




              Hyderabad State (in yellowish-green)
              In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed to form states on linguistic bases. An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana's interests. After reorganisation in 1956, the region of Telangana was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.

              Following the Gentlemen's agreement, the central government established a unified Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956.

              Telangana movement

              Main article: Telangana movement
              There have been several movements to invalidate the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972, and 2009. The movement gained momentum over decades for a new state of Telangana. On 9 December 2009 the government of India announced process of formation of Telangana state. Violent protests led by politicians raised in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema regions immediately after the announcement, and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009.

              The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana. There have been hundreds of claimed suicides[citation needed], strikes, protests and disturbances to public life demanding separate statehood.

              Bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh

              See also: Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014
              On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state. After various stages the bill was placed in the parliament in February 2014. In February 2014, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh. The bill received the assent of the president and published in the gazette on 1 March 2014.

              The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014. The occasion was marked by pink balloons and an hour long firework display starting at midnight. Cultural displays highlighting the language and traditions of the state's people were held. The newly chosen state song "Jaya Jaya he Telangana" was played at more than 150 celebrations across the state. Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was chosen as the first chief minister of Telangana. He and his cabinet were sworn in at 8:15 am local time. Hyderabad will remain as the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period of 10 years.



              Basilica of Our Lady of the Assumption in Secunderabad

              Geography

              Telangana is situated on the Deccan Plateau, in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. It covers 114,800 square kilometres (44,300 sq mi). The region is drained by two major rivers, with about 79% of the Godavari River catchment area and about 69% of the Krishna River catchment area, but most of the land is arid. Telangana is also drained by several minor rivers such as the Bhima, the Manjira and the Musi.

              The annual rainfall is between 900 to 1500 mm in northern Telangana and 700 to 900 mm in southern Telangana, from the southwest monsoons. Various soil types abound, including chalkas, red sandy soils, dubbas, deep red loamy soils, and very deep b.c. [clarification needed] soils that facilitate planting mangoes, oranges and flowers. About 45% of the forest area of Andhra Pradesh is located in five districts of Telangana.

              Climate

              Telangana is a semi-arid area and has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summers start in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 42 °C (108 °F) range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about 755 mm (29.7 inches) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February with little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range.
              Warangal
              Climate chart (explanation)
              JFMAMJJASOND
               
               
              15
               
              30
              16
               
               
              5
               
              33
              18
               
               
              5
               
              37
              22
               
               
              7
               
              40
              26
               
               
              15
               
              42
              28
               
               
              50
               
              37
              28
               
               
              85
               
              32
              25
               
               
              170
               
              31
              25
               
               
              160
               
              33
              23
               
               
              70
               
              33
              22
               
               
              10
               
              31
              18
               
               
              0
               
              30
              15
              Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
              Precipitation totals in mm
              Source: www.mustseeindia.com
              Imperial conversion
              JFMAMJJASOND
               
               
              0.6
               
              86
              61
               
               
              0.2
               
              91
              64
               
               
              0.2
               
              99
              72
               
               
              0.3
               
              104
              79
               
               
              0.6
               
              108
              82
               
               
              2
               
              99
              82
               
               
              3.3
               
              90
              77
               
               
              6.7
               
              88
              77
               
               
              6.3
               
              91
              73
               
               
              2.8
               
              91
              72
               
               
              0.4
               
              88
              64
               
               
              0
               
              86
              59
              Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
              Precipitation totals in inches
              Climate data for Hyderabad
              MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
              Record high °C (°F)33.4

              (92.1)
              36.8

              (98.2)
              39.9

              (103.8)
              43.1

              (109.6)
              43.7

              (110.7)
              45.5

              (113.9)
              36.0

              (96.8)
              34.7

              (94.5)
              35.3

              (95.5)
              36.1

              (97)
              33.8

              (92.8)
              32.7

              (90.9)
              45.5

              (113.9)
              Average high °C (°F)28.6

              (83.5)
              31.8

              (89.2)
              35.2

              (95.4)
              37.6

              (99.7)
              38.8

              (101.8)
              34.4

              (93.9)
              30.5

              (86.9)
              29.6

              (85.3)
              30.1

              (86.2)
              30.4

              (86.7)
              28.8

              (83.8)
              27.8

              (82)
              32.0

              (89.6)
              Daily mean °C (°F)22.2

              (72)
              25.1

              (77.2)
              28.4

              (83.1)
              31.5

              (88.7)
              33.0

              (91.4)
              29.3

              (84.7)
              27.0

              (80.6)
              26.2

              (79.2)
              26.6

              (79.9)
              25.7

              (78.3)
              23.2

              (73.8)
              21.6

              (70.9)
              26.65

              (79.98)
              Average low °C (°F)14.7

              (58.5)
              17.0

              (62.6)
              20.3

              (68.5)
              24.1

              (75.4)
              26.0

              (78.8)
              23.9

              (75)
              22.5

              (72.5)
              22.0

              (71.6)
              21.7

              (71.1)
              20.0

              (68)
              16.4

              (61.5)
              14.1

              (57.4)
              20.2

              (68.4)
              Record low °C (°F)6.1

              (43)
              11.3

              (52.3)
              14.6

              (58.3)
              17.2

              (63)
              17.8

              (64)
              18.6

              (65.5)
              19.2

              (66.6)
              20.0

              (68)
              19.1

              (66.4)
              13.3

              (55.9)
              10.6

              (51.1)
              8.5

              (47.3)
              6.1

              (43)
              Rainfall mm (inches)3.2

              (0.126)
              5.2

              (0.205)
              12.0

              (0.472)
              21.0

              (0.827)
              37.3

              (1.469)
              96.1

              (3.783)
              163.9

              (6.453)
              171.1

              (6.736)
              181.5

              (7.146)
              90.9

              (3.579)
              16.2

              (0.638)
              6.1

              (0.24)
              804.5

              (31.674)
              Avg. rainy days.3.4.91.82.77.610.610.18.95.71.6.451.0
               % humidity56493937396171747263585756.3
              Mean monthly sunshine hours279.0271.2263.5273.0282.1180.0142.6136.4168.0226.3246.0263.52,731.6
              Source #1: India Meteorological Department (1951–1980), NOAA of the USA (extremes, mean, humidity, 1971–1990)
              Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only, 1971–1990) IMD • Hyderabad

              Government and politics

              Main articles: Government of Telangana and Politics of Telangana
              See also: List of Chief Ministers of Telangana
              Telangana is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. There are three branches of government.
              1. Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor. The Governor is the head of state appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly.
              2. The legislature, the Telangana Legislative Assembly and the Telangana Legislative Council, consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, that are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence. The Assembly is bicameral with 119 Members of the Legislative Assembly and 40 Member of the Legislative Council. Terms of office run for 5 years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term. The Legislative Council is a permanent body with one-third members retiring every two years.
              3. The judiciary is composed of the High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad and a system of lower courts.


              Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. The state contributes seats to Lok Sabha.

              The main players in the regional politics are the Telangana Rashtra Samithi, Telugu Desam Party and Indian National Congress. Following the Telangana Legislative Assembly Election in 2014, the Telangana Rashtra Samithi under Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected to power.

              Subdivisions

              Main article: List of districts in Telangana



              Districts of Telangana
              • Adilabad
              • Nizamabad
              • Karimnagar
              • Medak
              • Warangal
              • Khammam
              • Rangareddy
              • Hyderabad
              • Nalgonda
              • Mahaboobnagar

              Demographics

              See also: List of cities in Telangana by population
              Religion in Telangana
              ReligionPercent
              Hinduism
                
              86%
              Islam
                
              12.4%
              Christianity
                
              1.2%
              Others
                
              0.4%
              According to the Backward Regions Grant Fund 2009–10, 13 backward districts are located in Andhra Pradesh: nine (all except Hyderabad) are from Telangana and the rest are from other regions.

              The religious makeup of Telangana is 86% Hindu, 12.4% Muslim, and 1.2% Christian, and 0.4% others.

              About 76% of the population of Telangana speak Telugu, 12% speak Urdu, and 12% speak other languages. Before 1948, Urdu was the official language of Hyderabad State, and due to a lack of Telugu-language educational institutions, Urdu was the language of the educated elite of Telangana. After 1948, once Hyderabad State joined the new Republic of India, Telugu became the language of government, and as Telugu was introduced as the medium of instruction in schools and colleges, the use of Urdu among non-Muslims decreased.

              According to the 2011 census, Telangana literacy rate is 67.22%. Male literacy and female literacy are 75.6% and 58.77% respectively. Hyderabad district leading with 80.96% and Mahboobnagar district at the bottom with 56.06%.

              Culture

              Telangana has typical cosmopolitan cultural background with population from India and outside India. It has distinctive culture inheriting cultural customs from Persian traditions embedded during Moghuls and Nizams rule with prominent and predominantly south Indian traditions and customs.

              Art and literature

              See also: List of Telangana poets
              Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah was the first Saheb-e-dewan Urdu poet. Other poets of Telangana from the early era include Kancherla Gopanna or Bhakta Ramadasu, Gona Budda Reddy, Palkuriki Somanatha, Mallinātha Sūri, and Hulukki Bhaskara. In the modern era poets include such figures as Padma Vibhushan, Kaloji Narayana Rao, Sahitya Akademi Award recipient Daasarathi Krishnamacharyulu, Vachaspathi Puraskar award recipient Sribhashyam Vijayasarathi, and Jnanpith Award recipient C. Narayana Reddy, as well as P. V. Narasimha Rao, ninth prime minister of India. Samala Sadasiva was selected for the Kendra Sahitya Puraskaram distinction. His book Swaralayalu on the subject of Hindustani classical music won the award for the year 2011.

              Cuisine




              Hyderabadi Biryani
              Telangana has two types of cuisines, the Telugu cuisine and Hyderabadi cuisine. Telugu cuisine is the part of South Indian cuisine characterized by their highly spicy food. Hyderabadi cuisine, an amalgamation of Persian cuisine, Mughlai, Telugu, Turkish cuisines, developed by the Qutb Shahi dynasty and the Nizams of Hyderabad. It comprises a broad repertoire of rice, wheat and meat dishes and various spices and herbs.

              Festivals




              Bathukamma flower arrangement
              A number of festivals are observed and celebrated in Telangana. Regional festivals include Bonalu (celebrating the Hindu goddess of power, Mahakali), Bathukamma (celebrating the Hindu goddess Mahagauri), Sammakka Saralamma Jatara (celebrating tribal goddesses) Yellamma festival and Edupayala Jatara (held on Mahasivaratri day, Medak). Apart from these, all the major Indian festivals like Dusshera, Ganesh Chaturthi, Ugadi (New Year of the Deccan), Diwali, Sankranti etc., are also celebrated. Muslims in Telangana celebrate the Islamic festivals of Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Muharram and Mawlid. Christians celebrate Christmas, and observe Good Friday.

              Economy

              Main article: Economy of Telangana

              Mineral resources

              There are also extensive coal deposits, which are excavated by the Singareni Collieries Company, for power generation and industrial purposes. There are limestone deposits in the area, which are utilised by cement factories. Telangana also has deposits of bauxite and mica. Kothagudem, Jammikunta, Palwancha are amongst the industrial towns in the state.

              Transportation




              Secunderabad railway station, a very busy railway junction in India and headquarters of South Central Railway



              Rajiv Gandhi International Airport

              Roadways

              The Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TGSRTC) is the major public transport corporation that connects all the cities and villages. Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station (M.G.B.S) in Hyderabad is one of the largest bus stand in Asia. Jubilee Bus Station in Secunderabad serves inter city bus services. Asia's biggest Inter City Bus Terminal (ICBT) is being built in Miyapur (Hyderabad), which would house nearly 200 bus bays and for parking nearly 1,000 buses.

              Railways

              The history of railways in this region dates back to the time of nizam of Hyderabad in 1874. It operates under the auspices of the South Central Railway founded in 1966. The landmark building Rail Nilayam in Secunderabad is the Zonal Headquarter office of South Central Railway. Secunderabad and Hyderabad are the main divisions of South Central Railway that fall in the state.

              Airports

              Rajiv Gandhi International Airport is an international airport in the city of Hyderabad. It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports nationwide. The government also has plans to start airports in other cities: Warangal, Nizamabad, Karimnagar, Ramagundam and Kothagudem.

              Warangal has a domestic airport which was established in the year 1930 during Nizam period. All the exports and imports of Azam Jahi Mills, Warangal were done through the Warangal Airport.

              Education

              Main article: Education in Telangana
              See also: List of institutions of higher education in Telangana

              Sports




              Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium
              Cricket, chess, tennis, badminton, Kabaddi are more popular sports [clarification needed]. The Hyderabad cricket team is represented in the Ranji Trophy and had won twice. The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium is the home ground of Hyderabad cricket team. It hosts international as well as domestic matches. The Sunrisers Hyderabad, an Indian Premier League franchise, is based in Hyderabad.

              Famous stadiums for other sports include Gachibowli Athletic Stadium (also has an indoor stadium), G. M. C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium which hosts many sporting events. Many academies are set up to nurture future sport stars. Gopichand Badminton Academy, Sania Mirza Tennis Academy, NVK Tennis academy etc.
              • See also List of stadiums in Hyderabad

              Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telangana )
              Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
              Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

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