NORTHERN CALIFORNIA

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Northern California Wikipedia



Northern California
Region
Northern California counties in red


Northern California counties in red
Clockwise: California State Capitol in Sacramento, Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco skyline, San Jose skyline, Muir Woods National Monument, the northern California coast as seen from Muir Beach Overlook, view of the California side of Lake Tahoe and Natural Bridges State Beach in Santa Cruz.


Clockwise: California State Capitol in Sacramento, Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco skyline, San Jose skyline, Muir Woods National Monument, the northern California coast as seen from Muir Beach Overlook, view of the California side of Lake Tahoe and Natural Bridges State Beach in Santa Cruz.
Country United States
State California
Major CitiesSan Jose


San Francisco


Fresno


Sacramento


Oakland


Fremont


Santa Rosa


San Rafael


Redding


Chico


Eureka
Population (2010)14,573,946
Northern California, often abbreviated NorCal, is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. The San Francisco Bay Area (which includes the cities of San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose), and Sacramento (the state capital) as well as its metropolitan area are the main population centers. It also contains redwood forests, along with the Sierra Nevada including Yosemite Valley and part of Lake Tahoe, Mount Shasta (the second-highest peak in the Cascade Range after Mount Rainier in Washington), and the northern half of the Central Valley, one of the world's most productive agricultural regions.

The area also contains one of the 11 megaregions of the United States, spanning from the San Francisco Bay Area east to the Lake Tahoe-Reno area, and from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento.

Native Americans arrived in northern California at least as early as 8,000 to 5,000 BC and perhaps even much earlier, and successive waves of arrivals led to one of the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America. The arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries, did not establish European settlements in northern California. In 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County.

Contents

              Description




              Yosemite Valley in the Sierra Nevada.



              Map of northern California counties.
              Northern California is not a formal geographic designation. California's north-south midway division is around 37° latitude, near the level of San Francisco. Popularly, though, "Northern California" usually refers to the state's northernmost 48 counties. This definition coincides with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ north latitude, which form the southern borders of Monterey, Kings, Tulare and Inyo counties. The term is also applied to the area north of Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains.

              Because of California's large size and diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well. For example, the Central Valley is a distinct region in itself both culturally and topographically from coastal California, though in northern versus southern California divisions, the Sacramento Valley and most of the San Joaquin Valley are usually placed in northern California.

              The state is often considered as having an additional division north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. Extreme northern residents have felt under-represented in state government and in 1941 attempted to form a new state with southwestern Oregon to be called Jefferson, or more recently to introduce legislation to split California into two or three states. The coastal area north of the Bay Area is referred to as the North Coast while the interior region north of Sacramento is referred by locals as the Northstate.

              Significance

              Since the events of the California Gold Rush, northern California has been a leader on the world's economic, scientific, and cultural stages. From the development of gold mining techniques and logging practices in the 19th century that were later adopted around the world, to the development of world-famous and online business models (such as Apple, Hewlett-Packard, Google, Yahoo!, and eBay), northern California has been at the forefront of new ways of doing business. In science, advances range from being the first to isolate and name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, to breakthroughs in microchip technology. Cultural contributions include the works of Ansel Adams, George Lucas, and Clint Eastwood, as well as beatniks, the Summer of Love, winemaking, the cradle of the international environmental movement, and the open, casual workplace first popularized in the Silicon Valley dot-com boom and now widely in use around the world. It is also Home to one of the largest Air Force Bases on the West Coast, and the largest of California, Travis Air Force Base.

              Geography and climate




              Mount Whitney at 14,505 ft (4,421 m)



              Shasta Lake, with 365 miles of shoreline, when the lake is full. July, 1965
              Northern California's diverse geography ranges from the sandy beaches of the Pacific coast to the rugged, snow-capped Sierra Nevada mountains in the east. The central portion of the region is dominated by the Central Valley, one of the most vital agricultural areas in the country. The Sierra Nevada contains Yosemite Valley, famous for its glacially-carved domes, and Sequoia National Park, home to the largest trees on Earth, the giant sequoia trees, and the highest point in the contiguous United States, Mount Whitney. The tallest living things on Earth, the ancient redwood trees, dot the coastline, mainly north of San Francisco, and in the Santa Cruz Mountains. It also includes one of the largest Brackish-Marsh's in Western United States, Suisun Marsh. The area is also known for its fertile farm and ranch lands, wine country, the high mountains of the southern Cascade Range, the Trinity Alps, and the Klamath Mountains, lakes, and the windswept sagebrush steppe, in the northeast portion of the region.

              Lake Shasta, located between the north end of the Sacramento Valley and Mount Shasta, is the largest reservoir, and is the third largest body of water after Lake Tahoe and the Salton Sea, in California. It was created by the construction of Shasta Dam across the Sacramento River, which was completed in 1945.

              The climate can be generally characterized by its marine to warm Mediterranean climates along the coast, to somewhat Continental Mediterranean Climate in the valley to alpine climate zones in the high mountains. Apart from the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas (and some other cities in the Central Valley), it is a region of relatively low population density.

              Cities

              San Jose, the most populous city in northern California and tenth largest in the United States, is the center of Silicon Valley, the preeminent region for technology in the US.

              San Francisco, the second most populated city in northern California and the 14th largest in the United States, is the leading economic center of the San Francisco Bay Area, and of northern California.

              Northern California's largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose, Oakland, and their many suburbs. In recent years the Bay Area has drawn more commuters from as far as Central Valley cities such as Sacramento, Stockton, Fresno, Turlock and Modesto. With expanding development in all these areas, the San Francisco Bay Area, Monterey Bay Area, and central part of the Central Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may now be viewed as part of a single megalopolis. The 2010 U.S. Census showed that the Bay Area grew at a faster rate than the Greater Los Angeles Area while Greater Sacramento had the largest growth rate of any metropolitan area in California.



              Downtown Fresno, third most populated city in northern California and fifth in California, from Chuckchansi Park



              Downtown Oakland by air
              The state's larger inland cities are considered part of northern California in cases when the state is divided into two parts. Important cities in the region not in major metropolitan areas include Eureka on the far North Coast, Redding, at the northern end of the Central Valley, Chico, and Yuba City in the mid-north of the Valley, as well as Fresno and Visalia on the southern end. Though smaller in every case except for Fresno than the larger cities of the vast region, these smaller regional centers are often of historical, and perhaps inflated economic importance for their respective size, due to their locations, which are primarily rural or otherwise isolated.

              History

              Historical events to 1847

              Inhabited for millennia by Native Americans, from the Shasta tribe in the north, to the Miwoks in the central coast and Sierra Nevada, to the Yokuts of the southern Central Valley, northern California was among the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America.

              European explorers

              The first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish Crown; in 1542, Cabrillo's expedition sailed perhaps as far north as the Rogue River in today's Oregon. Beginning in 1565, the Spanish Manila galleons crossed the Pacific Ocean from Mexico to the Spanish Philippines, with silver and gemstones from Mexico. The Manila galleons returned across the northern Pacific, and reached North America usually off the coast of northern California, and then continued south with their Asian trade goods to Mexico.

              In 1579, northern California was visited by the English explorer Sir Francis Drake who landed north of today's San Francisco and claimed the area for England. In 1602, the Spaniard Sebastián Vizcaíno explored California's coast as far north as Monterey Bay, where he went ashore. Other Spanish explorers sailed along the coast of northern California for the next 150 years, but no settlements were established.

              Spanish era

              The first European inhabitants were Spanish missionaries, who built missions along the California coast. The mission at Monterey was first established in 1770, and at San Francisco in 1776. In all, ten missions stretched along the coast from Sonoma to Monterey (and still more missions to the southern tip of Baja California). In 1786, the French signaled their interest in the northern California area by sending a voyage of exploration to Monterey.

              The first twenty years of the 19th century continued the colonization of the northern California coast by Spain. By 1820, Spanish influence extended inland approximately 25 to 50 miles (80 km) from the missions. Outside of this zone, perhaps 200,000 to 250,000 Native Americans continued to lead traditional lives. The Adams-Onís Treaty, signed in 1819 between Spain and the young United States, set the northern boundary of the Spanish claims at the 42nd parallel, effectively creating today's northern boundary of northern California.

              Russian presence

              Russians, from Alaska, were moving down the coast, and in 1812 established Fort Ross, a fur trading outpost on the coast of today's Sonoma County. Fort Ross was the southernmost point of expansion, meeting the Spanish northern expansion some 70 miles (113 km) north of San Francisco. In 1841, as the American presence in northern California began to increase and politics began to change the region, a deal was made with John Sutter and the Russians abandoned their northern California settlements.

              Mexican era

              After Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico continued Spain's missions and settlements in northern California as well as Spain's territorial claims. The Mexican Californios (Spanish-speaking Californians) in these settlements primarily traded cattle hides and tallow with American and European merchant vessels.



              Coast Redwoods in Muir Woods National Monument, in Marin County.
              In 1825, the Hudson's Bay Company established a major trading post just north of today's Portland, Oregon. British fur trappers and hunters then used the Siskiyou Trail to travel throughout northern California. The leader of a further French scientific expedition to northern California, Eugene Duflot de Mofras, wrote in 1840 "...it is evident that California will belong to whatever nation chooses to send there a man-of-war and two hundred men.":260 By the 1830s, a significant number of non-Californios had immigrated to northern California. Chief among these was John Sutter, a European immigrant from Switzerland, who was granted 48,827 acres (197.60 km2) centered on the area of today's Sacramento.

              American interest

              American trappers began entering northern California in the 1830s.:263–4 In 1834, American visionary Ewing Young led a herd of horses and mules over the Siskiyou Trail from missions in northern California to British and American settlements in Oregon. Although a small number of American traders and trappers had lived in northern California since the early 1830s, the first organized overland party of American immigrants to arrive in northern California was the Bartleson-Bidwell Party of 1841 via the new California Trail.:263–273 Also in 1841, an overland exploratory party of the United States Exploring Expedition came down the Siskiyou Trail from the Pacific Northwest. In 1846, the Donner Party earned notoriety as they struggled to enter northern California.

              Californian Independence and Beginning of United States era

              When the Mexican-American War was declared on May 13, 1846, it took almost two months (mid-July 1846) for word to get to California. On June 14, 1846, some 30 non-Mexican settlers, mostly Americans, staged a revolt and seized the small Mexican garrison in Sonoma. They raised the "Bear Flag" of the California Republic over Sonoma. The "Bear Flag Republic" lasted only 26 days, until the U.S. Army, led by John Frémont, took over on July 9. The California state flag today is based on this original Bear Flag, and continues to contain the words "California Republic."

              Commodore John Drake Sloat ordered his naval forces to occupy Yerba Buena (present San Francisco) on July 7 and within days American forces controlled San Francisco, Sonoma, and Sutter's Fort in Sacramento. The treaty ending the Mexican-American War was signed on February 2, 1848, and Mexico formally ceded Alta California (including all of present-day northern California) to the United States.

              Gold Rush and statehood

              The California Gold Rush took place almost exclusively in northern California from 1848–1855. It began on January 24, 1848, when gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in Coloma. News of the discovery soon spread, resulting in some 300,000 people coming to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. San Francisco grew from a tiny hamlet of tents to a boomtown, and roads, churches, schools and other towns were built. New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service and railroads were built. However, the Gold Rush also had negative effects: Native Americans were attacked and pushed off traditional lands, and gold mining caused environmental harm.

              The Gold Rush also increased pressure to make California a U.S. state. Pro-slavery politicians initially attempted to permanently divide northern and southern California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. But instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be admitted to the Union as a free state.

              Population and agricultural expansion (1855-1899)

              The decades following the Gold Rush brought dramatic expansion to northern California, both in population and economically - particularly in agriculture. The completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869, with its terminus in Sacramento, meant that northern California's agricultural produce (and some manufactured goods) could now be shipped economically to the rest of the United States. In return, immigrants from the rest of the United States (and Europe) could comfortably come to northern California. A network of railroads spread throughout northern California, and in 1887, a rail link was completed to the Pacific Northwest. Almost all of these railways came under the control of the Southern Pacific Railroad, headquartered in San Francisco, and San Francisco continued as a financial and cultural center.

              Substantial tensions during this era included nativist sentiments (primarily against Chinese immigrants), tensions between the increasing power of the Southern Pacific Railroad and small farmers, and the beginnings of the labor union movement.

              Economy

              Northern California's economy is noted for being the de facto world leader in industries such as high technology (both software and semiconductor), as well as being known for clean power, biomedical, government, and finance. Other significant industries include tourism, shipping, manufacturing, and agriculture. Its economy is diverse, though more concentrated in high technology, and subject to the whims of venture capital than any other major regional economy in the nation especially within Silicon Valley, and less dependent on oil and residential housing than Southern California. It is home to the state capital, as well as several Western United States regional offices in San Francisco, such as the Federal Reserve and 9th Circuit Court.

              Population

              Historical population
              CensusPop.
              185086,105

              1860346,714302.7%
              1870516,08948.9%
              1880772,77849.7%
              1890961,62824.4%
              19001,147,72519.4%
              19101,569,14136.7%
              19202,003,07527.7%
              19302,632,27331.4%
              19403,066,65416.5%
              19504,654,24851.8%
              19606,318,48235.8%
              19707,849,57524.2%
              19809,359,16019.2%
              199011,490,92622.8%
              200013,234,13615.2%
              201014,573,94610.1%
              The population of the forty-eight counties of northern California has shown a steady increase over the years. The 1850 census almost certainly undercounted the population of the area, especially undercounting a still substantial Native American population.[citation needed]

              The largest percentage increase outside the Gold Rush era (51%) came in the decade of the 1940s, as the area was the destination of many post-War veterans and their families, attracted by the greatly expanding industrial base and (often) by their time stationed in northern California during World War II. The largest absolute increase occurred during the decade of the 1980s (over 2.1 million person increase), attracted to job opportunities in part by the expansion taking place in Silicon Valley and the Cold War era expansion of the defense industry. The 2010 U.S. Census revealed that northern California grew at a faster rate than Southern California in the 2000s with a rate slightly higher than the state average.

              Parks and other protected areas

              National Park System

              Main articles: List of areas in the National Park System of the United States and List of National Parks of the United States
              The U.S. National Park System controls a large and diverse group of parks in northern California. The best known is Yosemite National Park, which is displayed on the reverse side of the California state quarter. Other prominent parks are the Kings Canyon-Sequoia National Park complex, Redwood National Park, Lassen Volcanic National Park and the largest in the contiguous forty-eight states, Death Valley National Park.

              National Monuments and other federally protected areas

              Main articles: List of National Monuments of the United States, United States National Marine Sanctuary, List of National Wildlife Refuges and List of U.S. National Forests
              Other areas under federal protection include Muir Woods National Monument, Giant Sequoia National Monument, Devils Postpile National Monument, Lava Beds National Monument, Pinnacles National Park, Point Reyes National Seashore, the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and the Cordell Bank and Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuaries (both off the coast of San Francisco). Included within the latter National Marine Sanctuary is the Farallon National Wildlife Refuge; this National Wildlife Refuge is one of approximately twenty-five such refuges in northern California. National forests occupy large sections of northern California, including the Shasta-Trinity, Klamath, Modoc, Lassen, Mendocino, Eldorado, Tahoe, and Sequoia national forests, among others. Included within (or adjacent to) national forests are federally protected wilderness areas, including the Trinity Alps, Castle Crags, Granite Chief, and Desolation wilderness areas.

              In addition, the California Coastal National Monument protects all islets, reefs, and rock outcroppings from the shore of northern California out to a distance of 12 nautical miles (22.22 km), along the entire northern California coastline. In addition, the National Park Service administers protected areas on Alcatraz Island, the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, and the Whiskeytown National Recreation Area. The NPS also administers the Manzanar National Historic Site in Inyo County, and the Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historical Park in Richmond.

              Other parks and protected areas

              • Tilden Regional Park
              • Alum Rock Park
              • Angel Island
              • Bidwell Park
              • Big Basin Redwoods State Park
              • Castle Rock State Park
              • Butano State Park
              • Farallon Islands
              • Golden Gate Park
              • Henry Coe State Park
              • Humboldt Redwoods State Park
              • Lake Tahoe Basin
              • East Bay Regional Park District
              • Marble Mountain Wilderness
              • Mount Tamalpais State Park
              • Suisun Marsh
              • Sacramento River
              • Turtle Bay Exploration Park
              • McArthur-Burney Falls Memorial State Park
              • Wilder Ranch State Park
              • Sequoia National Park

              Educational institutions

              Northern California hosts a number of world-renowned universities including Stanford University and University of California, Berkeley. Top-tier public graduate schools include Boalt Hall and Hastings law schools and UC San Francisco, a top-ranked medical school, and UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, the largest vet school in the United States.

              Public institutions

              • Five University of California campuses:


              • UC Berkeley
              • UC Davis
              • UC Merced
              • UC San Francisco
              • UC Santa Cruz


              • Eleven California State University campuses:


              • California Maritime Academy
              • Chico State
              • CSU East Bay
              • CSU Monterey Bay
              • Fresno State
              • Humboldt State
              • Sacramento State
              • San Francisco State
              • San Jose State
              • Sonoma State
              • Stanislaus State


              • A large number of local community colleges

              Private institutions

              (Partial list)
              • Brandman University
              • Dominican University
              • Drexel University Sacramento
              • Fresno Pacific University
              • Mills College
              • Northwestern Polytechnic University
              • Pacific Union College
              • Stanford University
              • Santa Clara University
              • St. Mary's College
              • Touro University California
              • University of San Francisco
              • University of the Pacific

              Research institutions

              (Partial list)
              • American Institute of Mathematics
              • Bodega Marine Laboratory
              • Hopkins Marine Station
              • Joint Genome Institute
              • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
              • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
              • Lick Observatory
              • Long Marine Laboratory
              • Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
              • NASA Ames Research Center
              • Owens Valley Radio Observatory
              • Pacific Institute
              • Point Reyes Bird Observatory
              • White Mountain Research Station

              Counties

              • Alameda
              • Alpine
              • Amador
              • Butte
              • Calaveras
              • Colusa
              • Contra Costa
              • Del Norte
              • El Dorado
              • Fresno
              • Glenn
              • Humboldt
              • Inyo
              • Kings
              • Lake
              • Lassen
              • Madera
              • Marin
              • Mariposa
              • Mendocino
              • Merced
              • Modoc
              • Mono
              • Monterey
              • Napa
              • Nevada
              • Placer
              • Plumas
              • Sacramento
              • San Benito
              • San Francisco
              • San Joaquin
              • San Mateo
              • Santa Clara
              • Santa Cruz
              • Shasta
              • Sierra
              • Siskiyou
              • Solano
              • Sonoma
              • Stanislaus
              • Sutter
              • Tehama
              • Trinity
              • Tulare
              • Tuolumne
              • Yolo
              • Yuba

              Regions

              The following regions are entirely or partly within northern California:
              • Big Sur
              • Cascade Range
              • Central California
              • Central Coast
              • Central Valley
              • Coastal California
              • East Bay (SF)
              • Eastern California
              • Emerald Triangle
              • Gold Country
              • Greater Sacramento
              • Klamath Basin
              • Lake Tahoe
              • Lassen Peak
              • Lost Coast
              • Metropolitan Fresno
              • Mount Shasta
              • North Bay (SF)
              • North Coast
              • Russian River
              • Sacramento Valley
              • San Francisco Bay Area
              • San Francisco Peninsula
              • San Joaquin Valley
              • Santa Clara Valley
              • Shasta Cascade
              • Sierra Nevada
              • Silicon Valley
              • South Bay (SF)
              • Telecom Valley
              • Tri-Valley
              • Trinity Alps
              • Wine Country
              • Yosemite
              • Yuba-Sutter Area

              Cities and Towns in northern California with More Than 50,000 Inhabitants



              Largest cities (city proper) in northern California
              CityPopulation (2010)
              Alameda73,812
              Antioch102,372
              Berkeley112,580
              Brentwood51,481
              Chico86,187
              Citrus Heights83,301
              Clovis95,631
              Concord122,067
              Cupertino58,302
              Daly City101,123
              Davis65,622
              Elk Grove153,015
              Fairfield105,321
              Folsom72,203
              Fresno510,365
              Fremont214,089
              Hanford53,967
              Hayward144,186
              Livermore80,968
              Lodi62,134
              Madera61,416
              Manteca67,096
              Merced78,958
              Milpitas66,790
              Modesto201,165
              Mountain View74,066
              Napa76,915
              Novato51,904
              Oakland390,724
              Palo Alto64,403
              Petaluma57,941
              Pittsburg63,264
              Pleasanton70,285
              Porterville54,165
              Rancho Cordova64,776
              Redding89,861
              Redwood City76,815
              Richmond103,701
              Rocklin56,974
              Roseville118,788
              Sacramento466,488
              Salinas150,441
              San Francisco805,235
              San Jose945,942
              San Leandro84,950
              San Mateo97,207
              San Rafael57,713
              San Ramon72,148
              Santa Clara116,468
              Santa Cruz59,946
              Santa Rosa167,815
              South San Francisco63,632
              Stockton291,707
              Sunnyvale140,081
              Tracy82,922
              Tulare59,278
              Turlock68,549
              Union City69,516
              Vacaville92,428
              Vallejo115,942
              Visalia124,442
              Walnut Creek64,173
              Watsonville51,199
              Woodland55,468
              Yuba City64,925

              Metropolitan areas

              Northern California is home to three of the state's four extended metropolitan areas that are home to over three-fourths of the region's population as of the 2010 United States Census:
              Metropolitan regionPopulation
              San Francisco Bay Area7,468,390
              Greater Sacramento2,461,780
              Metropolitan Fresno1,081,315

              Major business districts

              The following are major central business districts:
              • San Francisco Financial District
              • Downtown Oakland
              • Downtown Sacramento
              • Downtown San Jose

              Transportation

              See also categories:
              • Transportation in Alameda County
              • Transportation in Alpine County
              • Transportation in Amador County
              • Transportation in Butte County
              • Transportation in Calaveras County
              • Transportation in Colusa County
              • Transportation in Contra Costa County
              • Transportation in Del Norte County
              • Transportation in El Dorado County
              • Transportation in Fresno County
              • Transportation in Glenn County
              • Transportation in Humboldt County
              • Transportation in Inyo County
              • Transportation in Kings County
              • Transportation in Lake County
              • Transportation in Lassen County
              • Transportation in Madera County
              • Transportation in Marin County
              • Transportation in Mariposa County
              • Transportation in Mendocino County
              • Transportation in Merced County
              • Transportation in Modoc County
              • Transportation in Mono County
              • Transportation in Monterey County
              • Transportation in Napa County
              • Transportation in Nevada County
              • Transportation in Oakland
              • Transportation in Placer County
              • Transportation in Plumas County
              • Transportation in Sacramento
              • Transportation in Sacramento County
              • Transportation in San Benito County
              • Transportation in the San Francisco Bay Area
              • Transportation in San Francisco
              • Transportation in San Joaquin County
              • Transportation in San Mateo County
              • Transportation in Santa Clara County
              • Transportation in Santa Cruz County
              • Transportation in Shasta County
              • Transportation in Sierra County
              • Transportation in Siskiyou County
              • Transportation in Solano County
              • Transportation in Sonoma County
              • Transportation in Stanislaus County
              • Transportation in Sutter County
              • Transportation in Tehama County
              • Transportation in Trinity County
              • Transportation in Tulare County
              • Transportation in Tuolumne County
              • Transportation in Yolo County
              • Transportation in Yuba County

              Airports

              Main article: List of airports in California



              San Francisco International Airport or SFO is the largest and busiest airport in northern California and second in the state and tenth in the United States.
              The following airports currently have regularly scheduled commercial service:
              • Arcata-Eureka Airport
              • Charles M. Schulz - Sonoma County Airport
              • Chico Municipal Airport
              • Del Norte County Airport
              • Fresno Yosemite International Airport
              • Mammoth-Yosemite Airport
              • Merced Municipal Airport
              • Modesto City-County Airport
              • Monterey Regional Airport
              • Oakland International Airport
              • Porterville Municipal Airport
              • Redding Municipal Airport
              • Sacramento International Airport
              • San Francisco International Airport
              • San Jose International Airport
              • Stockton Metropolitan Airport
              • Visalia Municipal Airport

              Railroad




              The 19th Street/Oakland BART station in downtown Oakland
              • Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) - commuter subway connecting most of the core Bay Area including San Francisco and Oakland with their suburbs with ongoing expansion to San Jose and Antioch
              • Caltrain - commuter rail between San Francisco to Gilroy (south of San Jose)
              • Muni Metro (San Francisco)
              • VTA Light Rail (San Jose)
              • Altamont Commuter Express (ACE) - commuter train connecting Stockton and the Central Valley with San Jose and the Bay Area
              • Sacramento Regional Transit District light rail
              • Amtrak:
                • California Zephyr - connects Chicago to the Bay Area
                • Capitol Corridor - San Jose to Auburn (eastern suburb of Sacramento)
                • Coast Starlight - coastal train between Los Angeles and Seattle with northern California stops in San Jose, Oakland, and Sacramento
                • San Joaquin - Central Valley train linking Bakersfield in Southern California to Sacramento and Oakland

              Major transit organizations

              • AC Transit
              • Arcata and Mad River Transit System
              • County Connection
              • El Dorado Transit
              • Eureka Transit Service
              • Fairfield and Suisun Transit
              • Fresno Area Express
              • Golden Gate Transit
              • Lake Transit
              • Mendocino Transit Authority
              • Monterey-Salinas Transit
              • Porterville City Operated Local Transit
              • Redwood Transit System
              • SamTrans
              • San Benito Express
              • SF MUNI
              • San Joaquin Regional Transit District
              • Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA)
              • Santa Cruz Metro
              • Solano Express
              • Sonoma County Transit
              • Tri Delta Transit
              • Vallejo Transit
              • VINE (Napa County)

              Major transit ferries




              The historic San Francisco Ferry Building is the busiest ferry terminal on the West Coast and connects Downtown San Francisco to various parts of the Bay Area.
              • Blue & Gold Fleet
              • Alameda/Oakland Ferry
              • Alameda Harbor Bay Ferry
              • Angel Island - Tiburon Ferry
              • Golden Gate Ferry

              Freeways

              Interstates:
              • I-80 (CA).svg Interstate 80 (Eastshore Freeway/Lincoln Highway)
              • I-280 (CA).svg Interstate 280 (Southern Embarcadero Freeway/Southern Freeway/Junipero Serra Freeway/Sinclair Freeway)
              • I-380 (CA).svg Interstate 380
              • I-580 (CA).svg Interstate 580 (Eastshore Freeway/MacArthur Freeway/Brown Freeway)
              • I-680 (CA).svg Interstate 680 (Joseph P. Sinclair Freeway/Donald D. Doyle Highway/Blue Star Memorial Highway/Luther E. Gibson Freeway)
              • I-780 (CA).svg Interstate 780
              • I-880 (CA).svg Interstate 880 (Nimitz Freeway)
              • I-980 (CA).svg Interstate 980 (Grove-Shafter Freeway)
              • I-238 (CA).svg Interstate 238
              • I-205 (CA).svg Interstate 205 (Robert T. Monagan Freeway)
              • I-5 (CA).svg Interstate 5 (Golden State Freeway/West Side Freeway)
              • I-505 (CA).svg Interstate 505
              • Business Loop 80.svg Interstate 80 Business (Capital City Freeway)


              U.S. Routes:



              The Golden Gate Bridge is one of northern California's most well known landmarks and one of the most famous bridges in the world.
              • US 6 (1961 cutout).svg U.S. Route 6
              • US 50 (CA).svg U.S. Route 50 (El Dorado Freeway)
              • US 101 (CA).svg U.S. Route 101 (South Valley Freeway/Bayshore Freeway/James Lick Freeway/Central Freeway/Redwood Highway/Michael J. Burns Freeway/Redwood Highway)
              • US 395 (CA).svg U.S. Route 395
              • US 97 (CA).svg U.S. Route 97
              • US 199 (CA).svg U.S. Route 199



              I-80 and I-580 in Berkeley in the Bay Area



              State Route 120 is one of the many highways that traverse the isolated areas of inner northern California
              Principal State highways:
              • California 1.svg State Route 1 (Pacific Coast Highway/Cabrillo Highway)
              • California 3.svg State Route 3
              • California 4.svg

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