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Hudson Valley Wikipedia



This article is about the region. For the magazine, see Hudson Valley (magazine).



The Hudson Valley
The Hudson Valley comprises the valley of the Hudson River and its adjacent communities in the U.S. state of New York, from the cities of Albany and Troy southward to Yonkers in Westchester County.

Contents

    Geology and physiography




    The lower Hudson Valley cuts through the Appalachian zones of the eastern USA - USGS
    The Hudson River valley runs more or less north to south down the eastern edge of New York State, cutting through a series of rock types including Triassic sandstones and redbeds in the south and much more ancient Precambrian gneiss in the north (and east). In the Hudson Highlands, the river enters a fjord cut during previous ice ages. To the west lie the extensive Appalachian highlands. In the Tappan Zee region, the west side of the river has high cliffs produced by an erosion-resistant diabase; these cliffs range from 400–800 feet in height.

    The Hudson Valley is one physiographic section of the larger Ridge-and-Valley province, which in turn is part of the larger Appalachian physiographic division. The northern portions of the Hudson Valley fall within the Eastern Great Lakes and Hudson Lowlands Ecoregion.

    During the last ice age, the valley was filled by a large glacier that pushed down as far as Long Island. Near the end of the last ice age, the Great Lakes drained south down the Hudson River, from a large glacial lake called Lake Iroquois. Lake Ontario is the remnant of that Lake. Large sand deposits remain from where Lake Iroquois drained into the Hudson; these are now part of the Rome Sand Plains.

    History




    The Mohonk Mountain House in Ulster County, New York was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1986.



    The Catskill Mountains seen from across the Hudson River.



    The lower Hudson River and west end of Long Island photographed from the Space Shuttle Columbia in 1993.
    At the time of the arrival of the first Europeans in the 17th century, the area of Hudson Valley was inhabited primarily by the Algonquian-speaking Mahican and Munsee Native American people, known collectively as River Indians.

    The first Dutch settlement was in the 1610s with the establishment of Fort Nassau, a trading post (factorij) south of modern-day Albany, with the purpose of exchanging European goods for beaver pelts. Fort Nassau was later replaced by Fort Orange. During the rest of the 17th century, the Hudson Valley formed the heart of the New Netherland colony operations, with the New Amsterdam settlement on Manhattan serving as a post for supplies and defense of the upriver operations.

    During the French and Indian War in the 1750s, the northern end of the valley became the bulwark of the British defense against French invasion from Canada via Lake Champlain.

    The valley became one of the major regions of conflict during the American Revolution. Part of the early strategy of the British was to sever the colonies in two by maintaining control of the river.

    Following the building of the Erie Canal, the area became an important industrial center. The canal opened the Hudson Valley and New York City to commerce with the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. However, in the mid 20th century, many of the industrial towns went into decline.

    In the early 19th century, popularized by the stories of Washington Irving, the Hudson Valley gained a reputation as a somewhat gothic region inhabited by the remnants of the early days of the Dutch colonization of New York (see, e.g., The Legend of Sleepy Hollow). The area is associated with the Hudson River School, a group of American Romantic painters who worked from about 1830 to 1870.

    The natural beauty of the Hudson Valley has earned the Hudson River the nickname "America's Rhineland", a comparison to the famous 40 mile (65 km) stretch of Germany's Rhine River valley between the cities of Bingen and Koblenz. A similar 30-mile (48 km) stretch of the east bank in Dutchess and Columbia counties has been designated a National Historic Landmark.

    Hudson river pollution

    The numerous factories that at one time lined the Hudson River poured garbage and industrial waste directly into the river. This pollution was not assessed in a comprehensive fashion until the 1970s. By that time, the largest company still operating factories in the area was General Electric, which became primarily responsible for cleaning the Hudson River. In 2009 dredging was started to remove contaminated sediments from the river bed and in 2010 General Electric agreed to finance and conduct a second dredging campaign at the Upper Hudson River between Fort Edward and Troy. These works will be supervised by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Though the work is slow going, environmental advocacy groups have lent their voice to the problem of pollution. Scenic Hudson, Hudson River Sloop Clearwater, Hudson Riverkeeper, and the NRDC continue to push for more action from General Electric.

    Regions

    The Hudson Valley is divided into three regions: Lower, Middle, and Upper. The following is a list of the counties within the Hudson Valley sorted by region. The Lower Hudson Valley is typically considered part of the Downstate New York region due to its geographical and cultural proximity to New York City
    Part of a series on
    Regions of New York
    Map of New York Economic Regions.svg


    Lower Hudson
    • Westchester
    • Rockland
    • Putnam



    Mid-Hudson
    • Dutchess
    • Orange
    • Ulster
    • Sullivan


    Upper Hudson/Capital District
    • Columbia
    • Greene
    • Rensselaer
    • Albany

    Communities

    See also: Timeline of town creation in the Hudson Valley and Timeline of town creation in New York's Capital District
    • Airmont
    • Albany
    • Ancram
    • Annandale-on-Hudson
    • Arlington
    • Athens
    • Balmville
    • Beacon
    • Brewster
    • Briarcliff Manor
    • Buchanan
    • Carmel
    • Castleton-on-Hudson
    • Catskill
    • Chester
    • Chestnut Ridge
    • Coeymans
    • Cohoes
    • Cold Spring
    • Congers
    • Copake
    • Cornwall
    • Cortlandt Manor
    • Coxsackie
    • Croton-on-Hudson
    • Delmar
    • Dobbs Ferry
    • East Fishkill
    • East Greenbush
    • Elsmere
    • Esopus
    • Fairview
    • Fishkill
    • Fort Montgomery
    • Garrison
    • Gardiner
    • Germantown
    • Glasco
    • Goshen
    • Grand View-on-Hudson
    • Hastings-on-Hudson
    • Haverstraw
    • Highland
    • Highland Falls
    • Highland Mills
    • Hillburn
    • Hillcrest
    • Hillsdale
    • Hudson
    • Hyde Park
    • Irvington
    • Kinderhook
    • Kingston
    • Mahopac
    • Malden-on-Hudson
    • Marlboro
    • Menands
    • Middletown
    • Millbrook
    • Milton
    • Monroe
    • Monsey
    • Montebello
    • Montgomery
    • Montrose
    • Mount Ivy
    • Nanuet
    • New Baltimore
    • New City
    • New Hamburg
    • New Paltz
    • New Windsor
    • Newburgh, City of
    • Newburgh, Town of
    • Nyack
    • Ossining
    • Palisades
    • Patterson
    • Pawling
    • Pearl River
    • Peekskill
    • Piermont
    • Pleasant Valley
    • Pomona
    • Port Chester
    • Port Ewen
    • Poughkeepsie
    • Putnam Valley
    • Ravena
    • Red Hook
    • Rensselaer
    • Rhinebeck
    • Rhinecliff
    • Saugerties
    • Selkirk
    • Sleepy Hollow
    • Sloatsburg
    • Southeast
    • South Nyack
    • Sparkill
    • Spring Valley
    • Staatsburg
    • Stockport
    • Stony Point
    • Stuyvesant
    • Suffern
    • Taghkanic
    • Tarrytown
    • Tivoli
    • Troy
    • Upper Nyack
    • Valatie
    • Valhalla
    • Valley Cottage
    • Van Keurens
    • Verplanck
    • Wappinger
    • Warwick
    • Washingtonville
    • Watervliet
    • Wawarsing
    • West Haverstraw
    • West Nyack
    • West Park
    • West Point
    • Woodstock
    • Yonkers
    • Yorktown

    Sports

    The Hudson Valley Renegades is a minor league baseball team affiliated with the Tampa Bay Rays. The team is a member of the New York - Penn League and plays at Dutchess Stadium in Fishkill. The Rockland Boulders of the independent Can-Am League play in Rockland County.

    Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hudson_Valley )
    Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
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