Egypt

EGYPT

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Egypt Wikipedia



This article is about the modern country. For the ancient realm, see Ancient Egypt.
For other uses, see Egypt (disambiguation).
جمهورية مصر العربية

Ǧumhūriyyat Miṣr al-ʿArabiyyah


Arab Republic of Egypt
FlagCoat of arms
Anthem: Bilady, Bilady, Bilady


My country, my country, my country


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Capital


and largest city
Cairo


30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217
Official languagesArabic[a]
National languageEgyptian Arabic
DemonymEgyptian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential


constitutional republic
 - PresidentAbdel Fattah el-Sisi
 - Prime MinisterIbrahim Mahlab
LegislatureAbdel Fattah el-Sisi (Temporarily until the House of Representatives is elected)
Establishment
 - Unification of Upper


and Lower Egypt
c. 3200 BC 
 - Muhammad Ali Dynasty inaugurated9 July 1805 
 - Independence from


the United Kingdom
28 February 1922 
 - Republic declared18 June 1953 
 - Revolution Day23 July 1952 
 - Current Constitution18 January 2014 
Area
 - Total1,002,450 km2 (30th)


387,048 sq mi
 - Water (%)0.632
Population
 - 2014 estimate86,502,500 (15th)
 - 2006 census72,798,000
 - Density84/km2 (126th)


218/sq mi
GDP (PPP)2014 estimate
 - Total$576.350 billion
 - Per capita$6,714
GDP (nominal)2014 estimate
 - Total$275.748 billion
 - Per capita$3,213
Gini (2008)30.8


medium
HDI (2013)Steady 0.662


medium · 112th
CurrencyEgyptian pound (EGP)
Time zoneEET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST)EEST (UTC+3[b])
Drives on theright
Calling code+20
ISO 3166 codeEG
Internet TLD
  • .eg
  • مصر.
a.^ Literary Arabic is the sole official language. Egyptian Arabic is the national spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.
b.^ Summer time has been reintroduced in 2014.
Egypt Listeni/ˈiːdʒɪpt/ (Arabic: مصر‎ Miṣr), officially: the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Most of its territory of 1,010,000 square kilometers (390,000 sq mi) lies within the Nile Valley of North Africa and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.

With over 86 million inhabitants, Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa and the Middle East, and the 15th-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometers (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara Desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any modern state, tracing its heritage back to the 10th millennium BCE, which saw the emergence of one of the earliest and most sophisticated civilizations in the world. Egypt's iconic monuments, such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings outside Luxor, are a significant focus of archaeological study and popular interest from around the world. The country's rich cultural legacy is an integral part of its national identity, enduing and assimilating numerous foreign influences, including Roman, Greek, Persian, Ottoman, and European.

The economy of Egypt is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and services at almost equal production levels. Egypt is considered to be a regional and middle power, with significant cultural, political, and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world.

Contents

                  Names

                  The English name Egypt is derived from the ancient Greek Aígyptos (Αἴγυπτος), via Middle French Egypte and Latin Aegyptus. It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as a-ku-pi-ti-yo. The adjective aigýpti-, aigýptios was borrowed into Coptic as gyptios, and from there into Arabic as qubṭī, back formed into قبط qubṭ, whence English Copt. The Greek forms were borrowed from Late Egyptian (Amarna) Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name Hwt-ka-Ptah (〈ḥwt-k-ptḥ〉), meaning "home of the ka (soul) of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis. Strabo attributed the word to a folk etymology in which Aígyptos (Αἴγυπτος) evolved as a compound from Aigaiou huptiōs (Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως), meaning "below the Aegean".

                  Miṣr (IPA: [mesˤr]) is the Literary Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while Maṣr (IPA: [mɑsˤɾ]) is the common pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם (Mitzráyim), literally meaning "the two straits" (a reference to the dynastic separation of upper and lower Egypt).[citation needed] The word originally connoted "metropolis" or "civilization" and means "country", or "frontier-land".

                  The ancient Egyptian name of the country was
                  Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egypt )
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