Delta Air Lines

DELTA AIR LINES

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Delta Air Lines Wikipedia



"Delta Air" redirects here. For the defunct German airline, see DBA (airline).


Delta Air Lines
Delta logo.svg
IATA


DL
ICAO


DAL
Callsign


DELTA
FoundedMay 30, 1924; 90 years ago (1924-05-30)

(as Huff Daland Dusters)


Macon, Georgia, US
Commenced operationsJune 17, 1929; 85 years ago (1929-06-17)
AOC #DALA026A
Hubs
  • Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
  • Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport
  • Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport
  • Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport
  • John F. Kennedy International Airport (New York City)
  • LaGuardia Airport (New York City)
  • Los Angeles International Airport
  • Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport
  • Narita International Airport (Tokyo)
  • Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport
  • Salt Lake City International Airport
  • Seattle-Tacoma International Airport
Frequent-flyer programSkyMiles
Airport loungeDelta Sky Club
AllianceSkyTeam
Subsidiaries
Fleet size743 (mainline only)
Destinations247 (mainline only)
Company sloganKeep Climbing
HeadquartersAtlanta, Georgia, USA
Key peopleRichard H. Anderson (CEO)


Edward Bastian (President)
RevenueIncrease US$ 37.773 billion (2013)
Operating incomeIncrease US$ 10.54 billion (2013)
Net incomeIncrease US$ 3.4 billion (2013)
Total assetsIncrease US$ 52.252 billion (2013)
Total equityIncrease US$ 11.643 billion (2013)
Employees77,755 (2013)
Websitewww.delta.com
Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major American airline, headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving six continents. Delta Air Lines and its subsidiaries operate over 5,000 flights every day and have approximately 80,000 employees. The airline's hub at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport is the world's largest airline hub, with Hartsfield-Jackson being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic (over 91 million passengers per year) and number of landings and takeoffs; it is also home to Delta's Technical Operations Center. Delta is the sixth-oldest operating airline by foundation date, and the oldest airline still operating in the United States. Delta Air Lines is one of the four founding members of the SkyTeam airline alliance, the other three being Korean Air, Air France, and Aeroméxico. The loyalty program for Delta Air Lines is SkyMiles. Delta Air Lines was the world's largest airline in terms of fleet size in 2011 and scheduled passenger traffic in 2012, and the second-largest in terms of revenue passenger-kilometers flown in 2012. Regional service for the airline is served by Delta Connection.

Contents

                      History

                      Main article: History of Delta Air Lines



                      Restored Huff-Daland Duster



                      Delta Douglas DC-7 circa 1955



                      Delta Boeing 747-100 at Heathrow Airport in 1973.
                      Delta Air Lines was created as Huff Daland Dusters, Incorporated, an aerial crop dusting operation, on May 30, 1924 in Macon, Georgia. Formed with a Huff-Daland Duster, the first true crop duster, the plane was deployed to combat the boll weevil in 1925. Delta Air Corporation owned the plane (now in the Southern Museum of Flight). The company moved to Monroe, Louisiana in 1925. Collett E. Woolman, one of the original directors, purchased the company on September 13, 1928, and renamed it Delta Air Service. It began carrying passengers in late 1929. The single passenger sat in a chair placed in the bin where the pesticide was usually kept. The first routes were between Southeastern states.

                      Delta grew through the addition of routes and the acquisition of other airlines. They replaced propeller planes with jets in the 1960s and entered international competition to Europe in the 1970s and across the Pacific in the 1980s. The logo of Delta Air Lines, originally unveiled in 1959, is reminiscent of the swept-wing design of the DC-8 airplanes. Often termed as the “widget” logo, the current version consists of two 3D triangles.

                      Predecessors




                      A Northwest Airlines Airbus A330-300, shortly before the merger with Delta in 2008
                      The current Delta Air Lines is the result of many airline mergers over a period of more than 80 years. The most recent merger was with Northwest Airlines on October 29, 2008 and at the time formed the world's largest airline. After approval of the merger, Northwest continued to operate as a wholly owned subsidiary of Delta until December 31, 2009 when both carriers' operating certificates were merged (the Delta certificate was kept). Delta completed the integration with Northwest on January 31, 2010 when their reservation systems and websites were combined, and the Northwest Airlines name and brand were officially retired.

                      Predecessor carriers forming the current Delta Air Lines include:
                      • Chicago and Southern Air Lines (formed in 1933, merged into Delta in 1953). Delta flew under the carrier name of Delta-C&S for the following two years.
                      • Northeast Airlines (formed in 1931, merged into Delta in August 1972)
                      • Northwest Airlines (formed in 1926, merged into Delta in 2010. Also known as Northwest Orient Airlines from 1950-1989)
                        • Republic Airlines (formed in 1979, merged into Northwest Airlines in 1986)
                          • Hughes Airwest (formed in 1968 as Air West, name change to Hughes Airwest in 1970, merged into Republic Airlines in 1980)
                            • Bonanza Air Lines (formed in 1945, merged into Hughes Airwest (Air West) in 1968)
                            • Pacific Air Lines (formed in 1941, merged into Hughes Airwest (Air West) in 1968)
                            • West Coast Airlines (formed in 1941, merged into Hughes Airwest (Air West) in 1968)
                          • North Central Airlines (formed in 1946, merged into Republic Airlines in 1979)
                          • Southern Airways (formed in 1944, merged into Republic Airlines in 1979)
                      • Pan American World Airways (formed in 1927, upon its bankruptcy in 1991 Delta bought a selection of Pan Am's assets and routes and merged them into its operations)
                        • Atlantic, Gulf, and Caribbean Airways (formed in 1927, merged into Pan American World Airways in 1928)
                        • American Overseas Airlines (formed in 1937, merged into Pan American World Airways in 1950)
                        • Aviation Corporation of the Americas/American International Airways (formed in 1926, merged into Pan American World Airways in 1928)
                        • National Airlines (formed in 1934, merged into Pan American World Airways in 1980)
                      • Western Airlines (formed in 1925, merged into Delta in 1987)
                        • Standard Air Lines (formed in 1927, merged into Western Airlines in 1930)

                      Defunct Delta subsidiaries




                      Delta Express Boeing 737 in 2001
                      • Delta Express began service in October 1996 in an attempt by Delta to compete with low cost airlines on leisure-oriented routes. Its main base of operations was Orlando International Airport and it used Boeing 737–200 aircraft. It ceased operations in November 2003 after Song was established.
                      • Song began service on April 15, 2003 as a single-class airline operated by Delta to compete directly with JetBlue Airways from both airlines' hub at New York-JFK. While the brand was considered a successful addition to the Northeast-to-Florida market, financially the airline suffered. On May 1, 2006, Song was folded into the Delta mainline brand. Song used Boeing 757 aircraft.

                      Operations




                      Delta Air Lines headquarters in Atlanta

                      Headquarters and offices

                      Delta's corporate headquarters is located on a corporate campus on the northern boundary of Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, within the city limits of Atlanta. This location has served as Delta's headquarters since 1941, when the company relocated its corporate offices from Monroe, Louisiana to Greater Atlanta. Prior to 1981, the Delta corporate campus, an 80-acre (32 ha) plot of land in proximity to the old Hartsfield Airport terminal, was outside the City of Atlanta limits in unincorporated Fulton County. On August 3, 1981 the Atlanta City Council approved the annexation of 141 acres (57 ha) of land, an area containing the Delta headquarters. As of 1981 Delta would have had to begin paying $200,000 annually to the City of Atlanta in taxes. In September 1981 the airline sued the city, challenging the annexation on the basis of the constitutionality of the 1960 City of Atlanta annexation of the Hartsfield old terminal. The City of Atlanta was only permitted to annex areas that are adjacent to areas already in the Atlanta city limits.

                      In addition to hosting Delta's corporate headquarters, Hartsfield-Jackson is also the home of Delta TechOps, Delta's Technical Operations Center, which is the airline's primary maintenance, repair and overhaul arm and the largest full-service airline MRO in North America, specializing in engines, components, airframe and line maintenance.

                      Delta maintains a large presence in the Twin Cities, with over 12,000 employees in the region as well as significant corporate support functions housed in the Minneapolis area, including the company's information technology divisional offices.



                      An Airbus A330-300 painted in Delta's current livery, "Upward & Onward"

                      Branding

                      Delta's current livery, "Upward & Onward", uses four colors. It features a "widget" (triangle) on each aircraft's vertical stabilizer to refer to Delta's origins as a carrier in the Mississippi Delta.

                      The previous livery, "Colors in Motion", used eight colors. Delta introduced its current branding in 2007 after it emerged from bankruptcy. The switch from the previous livery to the current livery removed one day from each aircraft's painting cycle, allowing the airline to save money. The airline took four years to repaint all of its aircraft into the current scheme, including aircraft inherited from Northwest Airlines. The triangle logo, known internally as "the Widget", was introduced in 1959. It was not part of the "Colors in Motion" livery, but returned with the current livery.[citation needed]

                      Hub information

                      Current hubs




                      The "Fly Delta Air Lines" marker at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport emphasizes the presence of the airline
                      Delta has nine domestic hubs and three international hubs.
                      • Amsterdam Airport Schiphol – One of the two European hubs for Delta, in conjunction with SkyTeam partner KLM. Its presence is due mostly to Northwest Airlines' alliance with KLM prior to the merger.
                      • Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport – Service has been greatly cut since the merger with Northwest Airlines, but still officially remains a hub.
                      • Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport – Acquired through the merger with Northwest Airlines, Detroit is Delta's second-largest hub and also serves as the airline's primary Asian gateway for the northeastern United States.
                      • Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport – The largest hub for Delta Air Lines, as well as its headquarters site and maintenance base.
                      • John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York City – A major international gateway hub for Delta.
                      • LaGuardia Airport, New York City – Delta's newest hub, created as a result of a slot swap with US Airways.
                      • Los Angeles International Airport – Delta dismantled its Western Airlines inherited LAX hub in the mid-1990s when it decided to relocate most of those aircraft to the US East Coast. Since that point, however, it has operated re-opened it's hub here, mostly flying to Mexico, Florida, and Hawaii. Today,[when?] Delta maintains a combined 11% passenger market share with 139 daily departures to Hawaii, Mexico, Japan, Brazil, Guatemala, and some of Delta's large domestic bases throughout the United States, as well as regional service to the West Coast. LAX also remains Delta's sole gateway to Australia.
                      • Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport – Delta's third-largest hub, as well as the former headquarters for Northwest Airlines.
                      • Narita International Airport, Tokyo – Delta's Asian hub, acquired through the merger with Northwest Airlines.
                      • Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport – Delta's other European hub. Operated in conjunction with SkyTeam partner Air France.
                      • Salt Lake City International Airport – Western Airlines' Salt Lake City hub operations were continued after Delta purchased Western Airlines in 1987. Salt Lake City International Airport is Delta's fourth-largest hub in the United States.
                      • Seattle-Tacoma International Airport – Delta announced its eighth US hub on June 17, 2014 in conjunction with the launch of its new Seattle-Hong Kong service. The hub serves as Delta's main international gateway to Asia. Delta started building its international gateway in Seattle in 2011, and in 2013 began to add major domestic feeder service as well. However, the rapid expansion resulted in a turf war between Delta and hometown airline Alaska Airlines.

                      Former hubs

                      This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2014)
                      • Logan International Airport[citation needed] - A smaller hub for Delta in the second half of the 20th century and remained one until the early 2000s. In 2005, a new terminal A was built at Logan for Delta's sole use. However, when Delta went bankrupt, they leased 11 of the 22 gates in the terminal. Today, Delta still has a large share in the Boston market, with daily international flights to various cities in Central America, Canada, and major European cities, including Amsterdam, London, and Paris.
                      • O'Hare International Airport[citation needed] – Delta operated a small hub at Chicago until the early 1990s.
                      • Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport – Delta, at one time, operated over 200 flights per day from DFW. At times, it was Delta's third-largest hub behind Atlanta and Cincinnati, respectively. Delta closed the hub in February 2005.
                      • Frankfurt Airport[citation needed] – Delta acquired its Frankfurt hub from Pan American World Airways, which sold the remainder of its Atlantic Division to Delta upon bankruptcy, including the JFK Worldport.
                      • Memphis International Airport – A Delta hub that was originally dismantled but regained hub status through the merger with Northwest, though has been cut since then. On June 4, 2013, it was announced that Delta would close its Memphis hub, reducing its operation to 60 flights per day. The hub officially closed on September 3, 2013.
                      • Orlando International Airport[citation needed] – Delta built up an Orlando hub shortly after the demise of Eastern Air Lines in the early 1990s, and subsequently became the "Official Airline of Walt Disney World". The airport then became the hub for Delta Express and Song, before Delta pulled back mainline presence in the mid-2000s (decade).

                      Former secondary hubs

                      Delta has closed two secondary hubs due to changing business needs.
                      • Memphis International Airport – Memphis was a mini-hub in conjunction with regional carrier ASA. This operation ended in the mid-1980s when competition became too stiff with Republic Airlines and ASA shifted its aircraft to Delta's Dallas hub. Delta once again regained its hub status here after its merger with Northwest, which was again closed on September 3, 2013.
                      • Portland International Airport – Portland, Oregon was at one time Delta's main Asian gateway. Delta currently uses Detroit, Michigan and Seattle, Washington as its main Asian gateways as a result of its merger with Northwest.

                      Personnel

                      Between its mainline operation and subsidiaries, Delta employs approximately 80,000 people.[when?]

                      Employee relations

                      Delta's 12,000 mainline pilots are represented by the Air Line Pilots Association, International and are the union's largest pilot group. The company's approximately 180[when?] flight dispatchers are represented by the Professional Airline Flight Control Association (PAFCA).[citation needed]

                      Not counting the pilots and flight dispatchers, Delta is the only one of the five largest airlines in the United States, and one of only two in the top 9 (the other being JetBlue), whose non-pilot staff is entirely non-union. This caused issues during and after the merger with Northwest, whose employees had a much higher rate of unionization. Pilots at both airlines were unionized. Northwest Airlines flight attendants were formerly represented by the Association of Flight Attendants (AFA). A vote on unionization with the AFA at the post-merger Delta was held on 3 November 2010, unionization was narrowly rejected by flight attendants, with 9,544 votes against unionization and 9,216 in favor. The AFA accused Delta of interference in the vote and requested the National Mediation Board (NMB) investigate and order a second vote. The NMB investigation found that the election was not compromised and dismissed the claim. Currently both the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers and a coalition of the AFA and the Transport Workers Union of America are seeking to hold unionization votes for Delta flight attendants.

                      Destinations

                      Further information: Delta Air Lines destinations and Delta Connection destinations



                      Delta Air Lines destinations
                      Delta operates 4,932 flights per day. Delta Connection operates 2,533 daily flights.

                      Hub city statistics

                      These statistics about each of Delta's hubs are current as of June 2014. (Ranked by daily departures).



                      A Boeing 767-300ER at Beijing Capital Airport. (2011)
                      RankAirportDaily DeparturesDestinations Served
                      1Atlanta (ATL)977222
                      2Detroit (DTW)479137
                      3Minneapolis-St. Paul (MSP)445130
                      4New York City (LGA)27865
                      5Salt Lake City (SLC)25790
                      6New York City (JFK)20296
                      7Los Angeles (LAX)13948
                      8Cincinnati/N. Kentucky (CVG)10743
                      9Seattle/Tacoma (SEA)7625
                      10Tokyo (NRT)1917
                      11Amsterdam (AMS)189
                      12Paris (CDG)1211

                      Alliances

                      Delta was a founding member of the SkyTeam Alliance in 2000. In addition to SkyTeam partners, Delta Air Lines also has codeshare agreements with the following airlines as of December 2013:
                      • Alaska Airlines
                      • Gol Transportes Aéreos
                      • Hawaiian Airlines
                      • Olympic Air
                      • Virgin Atlantic
                      • Virgin Australia

                      Air France–KLM and Alitalia joint venture

                      Inherited from the Northwest-KLM relationship (which is older than any of the three major airline alliances including SkyTeam itself), Delta has a transatlantic joint venture with Air France-KLM and Alitalia. The program coordinates transatlantic operations, including ticket pricing, schedules, capacity, and revenue. On January 27, 2012, the European Commission launched an investigation into the impact of the joint venture on competition on the routes that it covers.

                      Joint venture with Virgin Atlantic

                      On December 11, 2012 Delta announced that it would spend $360 million to acquire a 49 percent stake in Virgin Atlantic. These share were previously held by Singapore Airlines. As a part of this agreement, both airlines would share the costs and revenues from all of the joint venture flights the airlines operated. As of the announcement, the two airlines planned to operate a total of 31 roundtrip flights between the UK and North America, including nine daily roundtrip flights between London Heathrow and New York City airports (John F. Kennedy International Airport and Newark Liberty International Airport). The two airlines applied for antitrust immunity with the United States Department of Transportation and immunity was granted on September 23, 2013

                      Fleet




                      Delta Air Lines has the largest Boeing 757 fleet of any airline
                      Main article: Delta Air Lines fleet
                      As of January 2013[update], Delta operates a fleet of more than 700 aircraft manufactured by Airbus, Boeing, and McDonnell Douglas. The carrier operates the largest fleets of Boeing 767 and Airbus A330 aircraft of any US airline. Delta also operates the largest fleets of Boeing 757, McDonnell Douglas MD-88, and McDonnell Douglas MD-90 aircraft in the world. Prior to its 2008 merger with Northwest Airlines, Delta's fleet was made up of solely Boeing and McDonnell Douglas aircraft; Airbus aircraft from Northwest joined the fleet after the merger.

                      Unlike other mainline US legacy carriers, Delta has decided that its best path to profitability is a strategy that utilizes older aircraft, and Delta has created a very extensive MRO (maintenance, repair and overhaul) organization, called TechOps, to support them. As of February 2014, the average age of a Delta airliner is 17 years; As of March 31, 2012[update], the average age of the Delta fleet was 15.8 years, excluding grounded aircraft and those operated by contract carriers. The oldest aircraft in the fleet are the McDonnell Douglas MD-88s, with an average age of 21.7 years. Delta buys older airplanes as sources for spare parts. However, Delta is replacing some of the oldest airplanes in its fleet. To replace the DC-9s, MD-88s, and older A320 and 757-200 aircraft in their fleet, Delta began discussing narrowbody replacement plans with manufacturers such as Airbus, Boeing and Bombardier in early 2011. On August 22, 2011, it was announced that Delta placed an order for 100 Boeing 737-900ER aircraft and deferred an order of 100 small narrow-body jets until 2012.

                      As part of its strategy to utilize less expensive used airplanes, On May 22, 2012, Delta announced an agreement to lease 88 Boeing 717s from Southwest Airlines that Southwest inherited from its acquisition of AirTran Airways as replacements for the DC-9 aircraft and some 50-seat regional aircraft. Deliveries should begin in mid-2013 replacing some of Delta's over 250 CRJ-100 and -200 aircraft.

                      Delta's strategy has reaped dividends, both in financial performance and in flight performance. Delta claims a flight dispatch rate in 2013 of 99.7%; its fleet had 120 days without a single maintenance failure. That included the month of October 2013, when Delta recorded no domestic flight cancellations. Delta posted a profit of $2.7 billion, the highest of any US carrier in 2013.

                      Delta officially retired the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 from its fleet on January 6, 2014; however, the DC-9 was used on an as needed basis until January 22, 2014 when the last DC-9 was removed from service. Delta was the final US carrier operating the McDonnell Douglas DC-9.

                      Cabin

                      BusinessElite




                      BusinessElite cabin on a Boeing 777-200LR



                      The entertainment system and aisle view aboard a Boeing 777-200ER
                      BusinessElite is Delta's long-haul international business class. Passengers in the BusinessElite cabin receive complimentary meals, refreshments, alcoholic beverages, and an amenity kit. BusinessElite is also available on domestic transcontinental service between New York and Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.

                      The flat-bed BusinessElite seats on Boeing 767-300ER and Boeing 767-400ER aircraft (made by Contour Aerospace and designed by James Thompson) feature a space-saving design, with the bottom ends of the seats extending under the armrests of the suites in front when in the horizontal position.

                      The flat-bed BusinessElite seats on Boeing 777 aircraft features sleeper suites made by Contour Aerospace and configured in a herringbone pattern with seats angled towards the aisle.

                      The flat-bed seats on Boeing 747-400 and Airbus 330 aircraft (as of October 2012) features the Cirrus flat-bed sleeper suite made by Zodiac Seats U.S. (formerly Weber Aircraft LLC), designed by JPA Design Consultants, and configured in a reverse herringbone patterns with seats angled away from the aisles.

                      Boeing 757-200 and aircraft configured with the BusinessElite cabin feature older recliner-style seating made by Recaro. BusinessElite seats on 767-300ERs have 60 inches (1,500 mm) of pitch and 18.5 inches (470 mm) of width, while seats on Boeing 757-200s have 55 inches (1,400 mm) of pitch and 20 inches (510 mm) of width. All seats are equipped with a personal, on demand In-Flight-Entertainment (IFE) system, universal power-ports, a movable reading light, and a folding work table. The BusinessElite seats ex-American Airlines/TWA 757-200s have electric recline, while those on ex-Northwest Airlines aircraft have mechanical recline. The ex-Northwest aircraft are planned to be converted back to a domestic configuration. On November 5, 2012, Delta announced it would introduce a flat-bed BusinessElite product on its ex-American Airlines/TWA 757-200s. The seats will be a modified version of the Diamond flat-bed seat by BE Aerospace designed exclusively for Delta.

                      First and Business Class (short and medium haul)

                      First Class is offered on all domestic aircraft, as well as Delta Connection aircraft with more than 50 seats. Seats range from 18.5 to 20.75 inches (47.0 to 52.7 cm) wide and have between 37 and 40 inches (94 and 102 cm) of pitch. Passengers aboard this class receive free snacks, drinks, and alcohol, with full meal service on flights 900 miles and longer. Certain aircraft also feature power-ports at each seat. When a domestically configured aircraft operates on an international route, such as those to the Caribbean, the first class cabin is branded as Business Class.

                      Economy Comfort Class

                      Economy Comfort seats are installed on all Delta aircraft, as well as all two-cabin Delta Connection aircraft and feature 34–36 inches (860–910 mm) of pitch; on all BusinessElite configured aircraft, 35–36 inches (890–910 mm) of pitch and 50 percent more recline over standard economy seats. Additional amenities include priority boarding, complimentary spirits and the option of purchasing a premium meal prior to departure on international flights, and HBO programming. On transcontinental flights between JFK-LAX/SFO/SEA, Economy Comfort passengers also get 1 free premium snack and a free cold meal. Customers can upgrade from standard economy class seats to Economy Comfort seats either for a fee or using either SkyMiles or for free if either a full fare Economy ticket is purchased or with elite status. Economy Comfort more closely aligns Delta's offerings with its Transatlantic joint venture partners as KLM also offers an Economy Comfort section of its Economy cabin that features similar seat pitch and recline. Air France offers Premium Economy l, which is not the same as Economy Comfort.

                      Economy Class




                      Economy class on a Boeing 767-400ER



                      Economy class on a Boeing 737–800
                      Economy Class is available on all aircraft with seats ranging from 17 to 18 inches (43 to 46 cm) wide and 30 to 33 inches (76 to 84 cm) of pitch. The economy seats on Boeing 737, 747-400, 777, and selected Boeing 757-200, 767-300, and McDonnell Douglas MD-90 aircraft have an articulating seat bottom where the seat bottom moves forward in addition to the seat back tilting backwards when reclining.[citation needed]

                      Economy class passengers receive complimentary snacks and non-alcoholic drinks domestically. Alcoholic beverages are also available for purchase. Complimentary meals and alcoholic drinks are provided on long-haul international flights. As part of Delta's EATS buy on board program, food is available for purchase on all domestic flights 1,500 miles (2,400 km) or more (including Hawaii and Alaska flights, which no longer offer complimentary meal service).

                      Delta operated a different buy on board program between 2003 and 2005. The previous program had items from differing providers, depending on the origin and destination of the flight. Prices ranged up to $10 ($12.49 when adjusted for inflation). The airline started the service on a few selected flights in July 2003, and the meal service was initially offered on 400 flights. Delta ended this buy on board program in 2005; instead, Delta began offering snacks at no extra charge on flights over 90 minutes to most U.S. domestic flights and some flights to the Caribbean and Latin America. Beginning in mid-March 2005 the airline planned to stop providing pillows on flights within the 49 contiguous U.S. states, Bermuda, Canada, the Caribbean, and Central America. In addition the airline announced that on Delta mainline flights the price of alcoholic beverages would increase from $4 ($4.83 when adjusted for inflation) to $5 ($6.04 when adjusted for inflation); the increase in alcohol prices did not occur on Song flights.

                      On-board amenities

                      Wi-Fi

                      On August 5, 2008, Delta announced it would be installing the Aircell mobile broadband network, Gogo, which enables customers traveling with Wi-Fi enabled devices, such as laptops, smartphones and PDAs, to access the Internet for a fee. Gogo was initially offered on Delta's fleet of McDonnell Douglas MD-88 and MD-90 aircraft but has expanded to the remaining domestic fleet, as well as Delta Connection aircraft with a first class cabin. Delta has the largest fleet of Wi-Fi-equipped aircraft in the world. The airline announced that it will offer Wi-Fi on international flights beginning early 2013.

                      In-flight entertainment

                      History



                      Audio Video on Demand offered domestically on select Delta aircraft
                      In the 1960s audio programming was introduced where passengers wore headphones consisting of hollow tubes piping in music. These were installed in some Delta aircraft. Some early wide-bodied aircraft, including the Lockheed L-1011, Boeing 767-200, and 767-300 fleet, had movies projected on to the cabin bulkhead. Also during the late 1980s and early 1990s, CRT monitors over the aisles were added to the 757 fleet, making them the first narrowbody aircraft to feature video entertainment. The MD-90 introduced Delta's first IFE system with LCD monitors in 1995, and the 777 introduced Delta's first in-seat video system in 1999, initially using the Rockwell Collins Total Entertainment System. Delta's first all-digital IFE system with AVOD (Panasonic eFX) was first introduced in 2003 on Delta's former low-cost subsidiary, Song. The Rockwell Collins IFE system on the 777s was replaced by the Panasonic eFX system in 2007, followed by the Panasonic eX2 in 2011. The Panasonic eFX and eX2 systems are trademarked by Delta as Delta on Demand.

                      In the spring of 2010, Delta installed the Panasonic eFX AVOD system in Economy on six 767-300ERs that are used on routes that are 12 hours or longer. Delta also announced it would be installing AVOD in Economy class on all Boeing 767-300ER and 747 aircraft over the next 3 years.

                      On July 27, 2010, Delta announced that it would be the launch customer of the new eX2 AVOD system with the Eco 9i Integrated Smart Monitor, a new ultra-lightweight IFE system by Panasonic Avionics Corporation and Zodiac Seats U.S.. The systems have been installed on the entire 747-400 fleet as of October 2012, and are currently being installed on the 767-300ER fleet (except for the six aircraft previously retrofitted with the eFX system in 2010). A different version of the Integrated Smart Monitor developed by Panasonic Avionics Corporation and BE Aerospace is currently being installed on the Airbus A330 fleet. These seats will also be installed on the Boeing 757-300 and new Boeing 737-900ER fleet, and will replace the existing seats and monitors on the international Boeing 757-200 fleet.

                      In 2012, Delta began replacing the overhead CRT monitors on the pre-merger Delta 757-200 fleet with new LCD monitors. This was completed in late 2012.

                      The 767-400ER fleet initially featured LCDs over the aisles, but were replaced in 2009 by the Panasonic eFX AVOD system when the last of the 767-400ERs were converted from domestic to international use. CRT projectors were originally featured in economy class on Boeing 767–300s, with the international 767-300ERs also featuring ceiling-mounted CRT displays over the aisles, which have since replaced by LCD monitors, and are now in the process of being converted to the eFX2 AVOD system.



                      Delta Air Lines 757-200 economy cabin with AVOD
                      When Delta's ex-TWA ETOPS 757s were first delivered, they featured a system made by Sony Transcom (a former subsidiary of Sony now sold to Rockwell Collins) system that was factory installed for TWA. The system featured overhead drop-down LCD monitors similar to Delta's non-Transcon 737-800s and 757-300s. Delta replaced the Sony Transcom system with the Panasonic eFX system featuring in-seat video and AVOD at the same time as the new BusinessElite seats and slimline economy class seats were installed.

                      Current fleet

                      Audio and video are available on all aircraft except for the Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD-80 and MD-90, selected Boeing 757, and Delta Connection aircraft. Boeing 777-200ER, 777-200LR, and 747 aircraft, along with those 767-300 and A330 aircraft that have completed cabin modifications, feature the Panasonic eX2 system. Compared to the older eFX system, this offers greater storage capacity, as well as larger personal video screens. Boeing 767-400ER aircraft, selected 757-200 aircraft, as well as the remaining internationally configured Boeing 767-300ER aircraft that have not completed cabin modifications, use the Panasonic eFX AVOD system. On these 767-300 aircraft, AVOD is available only in BusinessElite, while the system includes overhead LCD monitors and audio programming for passengers seated in the Economy cabin. The unmodified Airbus A330 aircraft feature the Panasonic 3000i AVOD system in all cabins. This system includes supplemental LCD monitors over the aisles for displaying the safety video and moving map.

                      Domestic Boeing 767–300s, Boeing 737–700s, as well as selected transcontinental Boeing 757–200s and selected Boeing 737–800s using the Panasonic eFX system, also feature live television via Dish Network in both first class and economy. Some Boeing 737-800s, as well as all Boeing 757–300s feature systems with drop-down LCD displays below the overhead bins.

                      All aircraft with AVOD feature Panasonic's iXplor moving map program. 737-800s with overhead video and the coach sections of 767-300ER aircraft with overhead video feature the Rockwell Collins Airshow moving map, which is often shown during takeoff and landing. Other aircraft formerly equipped with the Rockwell Collins Airshow moving map included the Lockheed L-1011-250 and -500, McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and Boeing 767-400ER and 777-200ER. The L-1011 and MD-11 fleet have since been retired, while the 767-400ER and 777-200ER have since had their Airshow systems replaced by the Panasonic iXplor system built into the eFX and eX2 AVOD systems.

                      Delta Sky Magazine

                      Delta Sky Magazine, and its online edition at www.deltaskymag.com, are published by MSP Communications in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

                      SkyMiles

                      Main article: SkyMiles
                      SkyMiles is the frequent flyer program of Delta Air Lines.

                      Sky Clubs

                      Question book-new.svg
                      This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2013)
                      Delta Air Lines' airport lounges are called Sky Clubs. Membership options include one-day, 30-day, annual, and three-year memberships and can be purchased with either money or miles. International business class passengers get free access.

                      Features vary by location, but generally include free drinks (including alcoholic beverages), snacks and reading material. Wi-Fi is free for members and guests and is mostly provided by T-Mobile. Other benefits for Sky Club members include reciprocal lounge access with other SkyTeam members and Delta's other partners. Delta Air Lines has installed putting greens at select Sky Clubs.[when?]

                      Originally, Delta's membership-based airport clubs were called Crown Room lounges, with Northwest's called WorldClubs.

                      SkyBonus

                      On November 27, 2001, Delta Air Lines launched SkyBonus,[not in citation given] a program aimed toward small-to-medium businesses spending between $5,000 and $500,000 annually on air travel. Businesses can earn points toward free travel and upgrades, as well as Sky Club memberships and SkyMiles Silver Medallion status. Points are earned on paid travel based on a variety of fare amount paid, booking code, and place origin or destination. While enrolled businesses are able to earn points toward free travel, the travelling passenger is still eligible to earn SkyMiles during his or her travel.

                      In early 2010, Delta Air Lines merged its SkyBonus program with Northwest's similar Biz Perks program.

                      Advertising slogans

                      This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2013)
                      Delta has had many slogans throughout its history:
                      • 1929: Speed, Comfort and Safety
                      • 1940: Airline of the South
                      • 1961: The Air Line with the Big Jets
                      • In 1966, with the introduction of the first Series 61 DC-8, Delta adopted the slogan "Fly big to Florida... Fly Delta!". Bob Hope, known in ads as Bob "Super DC-8" Hope, was Delta's spokesperson at the time.
                      • 1968: Delta is ready when you are"
                      • 1972: Fly the best with Delta
                      • 1974: Delta Is My Airline
                      • 1976: Celebrate the Bicentennial with Delta
                      • 1980: Delta is the Best
                      • 1983: That's The Delta Spirit
                      • 1984: Delta gets you there with care
                      • 1986: The Official Airline of Walt Disney World
                      • 1987: The Best Get Better, reflective of the airline's merger with Western Airlines
                      • 1987: We Love To Fly, And It Shows
                      • 1989: The Official Airline of Disneyland and Walt Disney World
                      • 1991: Delta is your choice for flying
                      • 1994: You'll love the way we fly
                      • 1996: On top of the world. This slogan was launched at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, for which Delta was the official airline
                      • 2000: "Fly___", in which the blank was filled in according to the context of the slogan's usage. For example, on the airline's cocktail napkins, the slogan was "Fly 'refreshed'". For luggage tags, the slogan read "Fly 'for business'" or "Fly 'me home'".
                      • Immediately after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, Delta adopted the slogan, "Delta remembers America".
                      • In 2004, Delta adopted a marketing scheme using "Secret Places – ___", in which the blank was filled in according to the picture being used in the advertisement (a major Delta destination).
                      • 2005: Good Goes Around"
                      • 2007: Delta Air Lines exited bankruptcy. To highlight changes, the airline chose "Change Is:__________" (in which the blank was filled according to the context of the slogan's usage) as its slogan. Other advertisements used the tagline "Change Is: Delta" in a play on the use of the Greek letter delta to denote the difference operator in mathematics.
                      • In and around Atlanta there are advertisements promoting Delta as the "Official Airline of the Braves Unofficial Airline of the World". Also "Make Every Game a Home Game" is used.
                      • After the merger with Northwest, both airlines adopted "One Great Airline" and "Together In Style".
                      • 2010: "Keep Climbing" campaign is launched in NYC in select media outlets and onboard Delta aircraft. Donald Sutherland is the 'voice' of Delta in the television ads.

                      Environmental initiatives

                      In 2008, Delta Air Lines was given an award from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Design for the Environment (DfE) program for their use of PreKote, a more environmentally friendly, non-hexavalent chromium surface pretreatment on its aircraft, replacing hazardous chemicals formerly used to improve paint adhesion and prevent corrosion. In addition, PreKote reduces water usage by two-thirds and reduces wastewater treatment.

                      PreKote is also saving money by reducing the time needed to paint each airplane. With time savings of eight to ten percent, it will save an estimated more than $1 million annually.

                      Sponsorships




                      Boeing 767-400ER painted in pink livery for Breast Cancer Research Foundation
                      • Delta served as a corporate sponsor in the early 1980s at Six Flags Astroworld for the area music. After the music completed one loop,[clarification needed] an announcement would play that Delta was sponsoring the music[citation needed].
                      • Delta served as the official airline of the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, the 2002 Winter Olympics held in Salt Lake City, and is also the official airline for the Atlanta Braves, Cincinnati Reds, Detroit Tigers, Minnesota Twins, New York Mets, New York Yankees, St. Louis Cardinals, Atlanta Hawks[citation needed], Brooklyn Nets[citation needed], Detroit Pistons[citation needed], Los Angeles Lakers, Minnesota Timberwolves[citation needed], Utah Jazz,[citation needed] Chelsea F.C. and Cirque du Soleil
                      • Delta also sponsored seasons 4 and 5 of the PBS game show Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego? and the first season of its spinoff, Where in Time is Carmen Sandiego?[citation needed]
                      • Delta awards the annual Delta Prize for Global Understanding in conjunction with the University of Georgia.
                      • EnergySolutions Arena in Salt Lake City, home of the NBA's Utah Jazz, was originally known as the Delta Center. Delta held the naming rights to the arena from 1991 to 2006 and continues to be an official sponsor of the team.
                      • Delta was a sponsor of the 2009 North American International Auto Show in Detroit.
                      • Delta is the official airline for High Museum of Art. Delta has added the image of a moustache to a Boeing 757 aircraft[when?] as part of the airline's sponsorship of an upcoming exhibit of the work of Spanish artist Salvador Dalí at Atlanta's High Museum of Art.[citation needed]
                      • As of 2009, Delta is the official airline and a Signature Partner of Madison Square Garden and all of its properties, including: the New York Knicks, the New York Rangers, the New York Liberty, the Theater at Madison Square Garden, Radio City Music Hall, the Beacon Theatre (New York City), the Chicago Theatre, and the Wang Theatre in Boston.[citation needed]
                      • Delta is the official airline for the Grammy Awards.
                      • Also in 2011, Delta is the official airline for the Durham Bulls minor league baseball team.
                      • In August 2011, Delta continued its push into New York City by securing its first arts sponsorship. The deal, with the Whitney Museum, makes Delta the official and exclusive airline of the Museum.

                      In popular culture

                      Deltalina

                      Main article: Deltalina
                      As part of the rebranding project, a safety video featuring a flight attendant showed up on YouTube in early 2008, getting over 1 million views and the attention of news outlets, specifically for the video's tone mixed with the serious safety message. The flight attendant, Katherine Lee, was dubbed "Deltalina" by a member of FlyerTalk for her resemblance to Angelina Jolie. Delta had considered several styles for its current safety video, including animation, before opting for a video presenting a flight attendant speaking to the audience. The video was filmed on a Boeing 757.

                      Incidents and accidents

                      The following are major incidents and accidents that occurred on Delta Air Lines mainline aircraft. For Northwest Airlines incidents, see Northwest Airlines Incidents and Accidents. For Delta Connection incidents, see Delta Connection incidents and accidents.


                      Delta Air Lines Reported Incidents
                      FlightDateAircraftLocationDescriptionCasualties
                      FatalSeriousMinorUninjuredGround
                      N/AApril 22, 1947DC-3Columbus, GeorgiaA Vultee BT-13, owned by the Tuskegee Aviation Institute, landed on top of a DC-3, which was flying from Macon to Columbus.80001
                      705March 10, 1948DC-4Chicago Midway AirportCrashed near Chicago Municipal (Midway) Airport shortly after takeoff while en route to Miami. Officials determined that longitudinal control of the airplane was lost resulting in the crash. The cause for the loss of control remains undetermined.121000
                      318May 17, 1953DC-3Marshall, TexasCrashed 13 miles (21 km) east of Marshall, Texas. The flight which originated from Dallas Love Field was on approach to Shreveport, Louisiana. The crash was attributed to adverse weather conditions with a thunderstorm in the area.191001
                      1903May 23, 1960Convair 880AtlantaCrashed during a training exercise in Atlanta. The aircraft stalled and crashed killing all four crew members.40000
                      9877March 30, 1967DC-8New OrleansCrashed during a training exercise near New Orleans International Airport. The improper use of flight and power controls by both instructor and the Captain-trainee during a simulated two-engine out landing approach, resulted in the loss of control. The aircraft crashed into a residential area, destroying several homes and a motel complex and killing 13 people on the ground.600013
                      9570May 30, 1972DC-9Greater Southwest International AirportCrashed during landing procedures in Fort Worth, Texas. The probable cause of the accident was wake turbulence resulting from a touch-and-go landing moments before of American Airlines Flight 1114, operated using a DC-10. The right wing hit the ground causing a fire resulting in the aircraft being written off.40000
                      954December 20, 1972Convair 880Chicago O'Hare Int'l AirportThe Delta CV-880 taxied across runway 27L in heavy fog. At the same time, North Central Airlines Flight 575, a DC-9-31, took off from the same runway. The aircraft collided.10017 (severity unknown)1010
                      723July 31, 1973DC-9Boston Logan International AirportCrashed into a seawall. Contributing to the accident was a defective flight deck instrument giving the crew misleading guidance during the instrument approach in visibility less than a half mile with 500-foot (150 m) cloud ceilings. 89 occupants died including Leopold Chouinard, who died from burns months after the accident, leaving no survivors .890000
                      516November 27, 1973DC-9Chattanooga Metropolitan AirportCrashed into approach lights during a thunderstorm047500
                      191August 2, 1985Lockheed L-1011Dallas-Fort Worth International AirportOn a Fort Lauderdale–Dallas/Fort Worth- Los Angeles route, the plane crashed due to severe microburst-induced wind shear. One person on the ground was killed as the plane crossed a highway. The crash would later become the subject of a television movie. Numerous changes to pilot wind shear training, weather forecasting, and wind shear detection were made as a result of this crash.134151221
                      37July 8, 1987Lockheed L-1011North Atlantic OceanNear collision with a Continental 747 carrying 418 passengers and crew. Both the Delta (London-Cincinnati) and Continental (London-Newark) were heading to the U.S. with nearly 600 people total on both aircraft. The Delta flight strayed 60 miles (97 km) off course to the south from its assigned "C" track during its flight and came within 30 feet (9.1 m) of colliding with the 747 as the L-1011 flew under it in Canadian airspace, flying on the "D" track (there are five westbound and five eastbound tracks from the United States to the United Kingdom. Had the planes actually collided, it could have tied the Tenerife airport disaster as the deadliest aviation accident in history.000All0
                      1141August 31, 1988Boeing 727Dallas-Fort Worth International AirportCrashed after takeoff bound for Salt Lake City, Utah. The investigation stated the probable cause of this accident to be improper configuration of the flaps and leading edge slats.142650180
                      1288July 6, 1996MD-88Pensacola International AirportAn uncontained engine failure of the port (left) engine on the aircraft resulted in a fan hub piercing the cabin. The flight was scheduled to fly to Atlanta. The aircraft involved in this accident, N927DA, was repaired and returned to service, and remains in service as of 2012.2231350
                      1989September 11, 2001Boeing 767–300En route from Logan International AirportFlight 1989, bound for Los Angeles International Airport was caught in the path of United Airlines Flight 93. The two aircraft were so close that ATC were initially confused as to which plane had been hijacked. The Delta pilot managed to avoid United 93 and the flight was later diverted to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport.000All0
                      129February 3, 2002McDonnell Douglas MD-11Dublin AirportFlight 129 from Atlanta skidded off the runway at Dublin Airport in high winds. The port engine of MD-11 N803DE had severe damage000All0
                      Although Northwest Airlines Flight 253 was listed as a Northwest Airlines flight, the aircraft bore the Delta livery during the transitional period after the merger and therefore was reported in some media as a Delta flight.[citation needed]

                      Hijackings




                      Delta Security stickers on the back of a passport.
                      There have been over a dozen attempted hijackings which resulted in no injuries and the surrender of the often lone hijacker. These incidents are not included. The following are notable hijackings because of fatalities or success in forcing the aircraft to fly to another country:
                      • In 1968, a Delta DC-8 was hijacked to Havana, Cuba. This was the first successful hijacking to Cuba from the U.S. since 1961,[citation needed] and was the start of multiple hijacking attempts to Cuba in the late 1960s. This coincided with the introduction of passenger screening using metal detectors in U.S. airports starting in the late 1960s.
                      • Additional hijackings which resulted in no injuries and the flight landing in Cuba include March 28, 1984 (Delta 357 New Orleans-Dallas 727), August
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