Ghana

GHANA

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Ghana Wikipedia



This article is about the modern country of Ghana. For the Ghana Empire (c. 790–1076) northwest of modern Ghana, see Ghana Empire. For other uses, see Ghana (disambiguation).
Republic of Ghana
FlagCoat of arms
Motto: "Freedom and Justice"
Anthem: 
  • God Bless Our Homeland Ghana
  • vocal
  • God Bless Our Homeland Ghana


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    You can download the clip or download a player to play the clip in your browser.
National seal
Seal of the Republic of Ghana
Government logo
Logo of the Republic of Ghana Government
Location of  Ghana  (red)
Location of  Ghana  (red)
Capital
Accra Metropolitan Assembly logo.jpg
Accra


5°33′N 0°12′W / 5.550°N 0.200°W / 5.550; -0.200
Official languagesEnglish (official) 21.3%
National language


Indigenous language
Akan (lingua franca) 83.9%
Ethnic groups (2010)
  • 47.5% Akan
  • 16.6% Mossi and Dagomba
  • 13.9% Ewe
  •   7.4% Ga-Adangbe
  •   1.1% Mande
  • 13.5% other
Religion
  • 71.2% Christian
  • 5.2% Atheist / Irreligion
  • 23.6% other
DemonymGhanaian
GovernmentUnitary presidential


constitutional democracy
 - PresidentJohn Dramani Mahama
 - Vice-PresidentKwesi Amissah-Arthur
LegislatureParliament
Independence from the United Kingdom
 - Declared6 March 1957 
 - Realm6 March 1957 – 1 July 1960 
 - Republic1 July 1960 
 - Current constitution28 April 1992 
Area
 - Total238,535 km2 (82nd)


92,099 sq mi
 - Water (%)4.61 (11,000 km2 / 4,247 mi2)
Population
 - 2010 estimate24.2 million
 - Density101.5/km2 (103rd)


258.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP)2014 estimate
 - Total$97.5 billion
 - Per capita$3,718.4
GDP (nominal)2014 estimate
 - Total$50 billion
 - Per capita$1,902.9
HDI (2013)Increase 0.558


medium · 135th
CurrencyGhana cedi (GH₵) (GHS)
Time zoneGMT (UTC+0)
Drives on theright
Calling code+233
ISO 3166 codeGH
Internet TLD.gh
Map of the Gulf of Guinea showing Ghana and its 2,093 kilometer international borders.
Republic of Ghana portal
Ghana (Listeni/ˈɡɑːnə/), officially called the Republic of Ghana, is a sovereign multinational state and unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Ghana is the 82nd largest country in the world and 33rd largest country on continental Africa by land mass, and Ghana has a land mass of 238,535 km2, with 2,093 kilometres of international land borders. The country is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. The word Ghana means "Warrior King".

Ghana is a constitutional democracy divided into ten administrative regions, and the world's 49th−most inhabited nation with a multiethnic population of around 24 million as of 2010. Ghana's varied geography includes savannas, woodlands, forests, a coastal line, springs, cave systems, mountains, estuaries, wildlife parks, and nature reserves. The coast of Ghana stretches 560 kilometres (350 miles) and includes a rich assortment of culturally significant castles, forts, ports and harbors. Prior to colonization by the British empire in the early-20th century, Ghana was the site of numerous kingdoms and empires; the most powerful being the Akan Kingdom of Ashanti. In 1957, it became the first African nation to declare independence from European colonization. This made Ghana a symbol of Black achievement and helped to inspire other African nations to seek independence. It also had a major influence on Pan-Africanism and the Black Pride movements in the United States of America.

Ghana is the 7th−best governed country, 5th−most stable country and thirteenth−most developed country on continental Africa. Ghana's economy is the 7th−largest on the Africa continent by purchasing power parity and Nominal GDP and is one of the fastest growing in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity per capita income, Ghana has the highest per capita income in the subregion of western Africa and Ghana has the thirteenth−highest per capita income on continental Africa.

Ghana is a significant petroleum and natural gas producer, one of the world's largest gold and diamond producers, and is projected to be the largest producer of cocoa in the world as of 2015. Ghana is home to Lake Volta, the largest artificial lake in the world by surface area. Ghana is a regional power in West Africa and on continental Africa, a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement, and a member of both the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Group of 24 (G24). Ghana's sweet crude oil reserves, ranks at 5th on continental Africa and 21st–25th globally and Ghana's natural gas reserves, ranks at 6th on continental Africa and 49th globally. Ghana ranks as the 58th most peaceful country in the world.

Contents

                  Etymology

                  The etymology of the word Ghana means "Warrior King" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in West Africa, although this empire was further north than the modern-day country of Ghana in Guinea region.

                  The name "Ghana" was the source of the name "Guinea" (via French Guinoye) used to refer to the West African coast off Ghana (as in Gulf of Guinea).

                  Ghana was adopted as the legal name for the area comprising four separate parts, which immediately before independence enjoyed distinct constitutional positions:
                  • the Colony of the Gold Coast;
                  • the Colony of Ashanti;
                  • the Protectorate of the Northern Territories; and
                  • the Trust Territory of Togoland (under British administration).


                  The minister responsible for shepherding through the independence legislation Charles Arden-Clarke Lord Listowel explained that the name was chosen "in accordance with local wishes".

                  History

                  Main article: History of Ghana

                  Prehistory

                  Main articles: Kingdom of Ashanti and Kingdom of Dagbon (Northern Territories)



                  16th – 17th century Akan Terracotta, Metropolitan Museum of Art
                  Prehistory Ghana was inhabited in the Middle Ages and the age of discovery by a number of ancient predominantly Akan kingdoms in the Southern and Central territories. This included the Ashanti Empire, the Akwamu, the Bonoman, the Denkyira, and the Mankessim Kingdom. There is archaeological evidence showing that humans have lived in present-day Ghana since the Bronze Age. However, until the 11th century, the majority of modern Ghana's territorial area was largely unoccupied and uninhabited by humans. Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were firmly settled by the 5th century BC. By the early 11th century, the Akans were firmly established in the Akan state called Bonoman, for which the Brong-Ahafo region is named.

                  From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman area, to create several Akan states of Ghana, mainly based on gold trading. These states included Bonoman (Brong-Ahafo region), Ashanti (Ashanti region), Denkyira (Central region), Mankessim Kingdom (Western region), and Akwamu (Eastern region and Greater Accra region). By the 19th century; the territory of the southern part of Ghana was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-saharan Africa prior to the onset of colonialism.

                  The Kingdom of Ashanti government operated first as a loose network, and eventually as a centralised kingdom with an advanced, highly specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi. It is said that at its peak, the King of Ashanti, Asantehene could field 500,000 troops - although actual fighting strength was less than potential strength; it had strong degree of military influence over all of its neighbours within West Africa. Prior to Akan contact with Europeans, the Akan Ashanti people created an advanced economy based on principally gold and gold bar commodities then traded with the states of Africa.
                  In the Northern territories there were the kingdoms of Mole-Dagbani states. The Mole-Dagombas came on horse-backs from present day Burkina Faso under a single leader, Naa Gbewaa. With their advance weapons and the presence of a central authority they easily invaded and occupied the lands of the local people, established themselves as rulers over them and made Gambaga their capital. The death of Naa Gbewaa caused civil war among his children, some of whom broke off and founded separate states including Dagbon, Mamprugu, Mossi and Wala.

                  Pre–Republicanism

                  Main articles: Gold Coast (region) and Ghana (Commonwealth realm)



                  Chronicles of Pre-Republicanism (c. 15th century–6 March 1957), including Gold Coast legislative election, 1956.
                  Akan trade with European states began after contact with Portuguese in the 15th century. Early European contact by the Portuguese people, who came to the Gold Coast region in the 15th century to trade then established the Portuguese Gold Coast (Costa do Ouro), focused on the extensive availability of gold. The Portuguese first landed at a south coastal city, and named the place Elmina as the Portuguese Gold Coast's capital city. In 1481, King John II of Portugal commissioned Diogo d'Azambuja to build Elmina Castle, which was completed in three years. By 1598, the Dutch people had joined the Portuguese people in gold trading, establishing the Dutch Gold Coast (Nederlandse Bezittingen ter Kuste van Guinea) and building forts at Komeda and Kormantsi. In 1617, the Dutch captured the Olnini Castle from the Portuguese, and Axim in 1642 (Fort St Anthony). Other European traders had joined in gold trading by the mid-17th century, most notably the Swedish people, establishing the Swedish Gold Coast (Svenska Guldkusten), and the Danish people, establishing the Danish Gold Coast (Danske Guldkyst or Dansk Guinea). Portuguese merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it Costa do Ouro or Gold Coast.

                  More than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Swedish, Danish, Dutch and German merchants; the latter German people establishing the German Gold Coast (Brandenburger Gold Coast or Groß Friedrichsburg). In 1874 England established control over some parts of the country assigning these areas the status of British Gold Coast. Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states and the Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times in a warfare against the United Kingdom that lasted for 100 years, but eventually lost with the War of the Golden Stool in the early 1900s.

                  In 1947, the newly formed United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) by The Big Six called for "self-government within the shortest possible time" following the Gold Coast legislative election, 1946. Dr.h.c. Kwame Nkrumah is the first Prime Minister of Ghana and President of Ghana and formed the Convention People's Party (CPP) with the motto "self-government now". The first Prime Minister of Ghana and President of Ghana Osagyefo Kwame Nkrumah won a majority in the Gold Coast legislative election, 1951 for the Gold Coast Legislative Assembly in 1952, Nkrumah was appointed leader of the Gold Coast's government business. The Gold Coast region declared independence from the United Kingdom on 6 March 1957 and established the nation of Ghana. This made it the first African country to gain independence from colonization. Within West Africa until the establishment of Ghana in March 1957, the territory of modern Ghana, excluding the Volta Region (British Togoland), was known as the Gold Coast region including the Kingdom of Ashanti and the Kingdom of Dagbon (Northern Territories).

                  Republicanism

                  Main article: Ghanaian First Republic
                  File:Ghana (1957-03-07 A New Nation).ogg 
                  The commencing chronicles of Ghana on 6 March 1957 and Kwame Nkrumah establishment of Ghanaian Republicanism, including Ghanaian presidential election, 1960.
                  On 6 March 1957 at 12 a.m Kwame Nkrumah declared Ghana's establishment and autonomy as the first Prime Minister of Ghana and on 1 July 1960, following the Ghanaian constitutional referendum, 1960 and Ghanaian presidential election, 1960 Nkrumah declared Ghana as a republic as the first President of Ghana.

                  The flag of Ghana, consisting of the colours red, gold, green, and the black star, became the new flag in 1957. Designed by Theodosia Salome Okoh, the red represents the blood that was shed towards independence, the gold represents the industrial minerals wealth of Ghana, the green symbolises the rich grasslands of Ghana, and the black star is the symbol of the Ghanaian people and African emancipation.

                  Kwame Nkrumah, first Prime Minister of Ghana, and then President of Ghana, was the first African head of state to promote Pan-Africanism, an idea he came into contact with during his studies at Lincoln University, Pennsylvania in the United States, at the time when Marcus Garvey was becoming famous for his "Back to Africa Movement". Nkrumah merged the teachings of Marcus Garvey, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the naturalized Ghanaian scholar W. E. B. Du Bois into the formation of 1960s Ghana.

                  Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, as he became known, played an instrumental part in the founding of the Non-Aligned Movement and his life achievements were recognised by Ghanaians during his centenary birthday celebration, and the day was instituted as a public holiday in Ghana (Founder's Day).

                  Operation Cold Chop and aftermath

                  Main article: History of Ghana (1966–79)



                  Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum with the statue of Osagyefo.
                  Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah and his government was subsequently overthrown by a GAF military operation codenamed "Operation Cold Chop" coup while Nkrumah was abroad with Zhou Enlai in the People's Republic of China for a fruitless mission to Hanoi in Vietnam to help end the Vietnam War on 24 February 1966 by GAF led by Field Marshal Akwasi Afrifa. It turned out later that, unhappy with Nkrumah's strengthening ties with the Soviet Union, People's Republic of China and other communist states, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of the United States had been kept updated about preparations for GAF military operation "Operation Cold Chop" and may have helped create difficulties for the Nkrumah government to facilitate this.

                  A series of alternating military and civilian governments from 1966 to 1981 ended with the ascension to power of Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings of the Provisional National Defense Council (NDC) in 1981. These changes resulted in the suspension of the Constitution of Ghana in 1981, and the banning of political parties in Ghana. The economy suffered a severe decline soon after, Kwame Darko negotiated a structural adjustment plan changing many old economic policies, and economic growth soon recovered from the mid–2000s. A new Constitution of Ghana restoring multi-party system politics was promulgated in Ghanaian presidential election, 1992; Rawlings was elected as president of Ghana then, and again in Ghanaian general election, 1996.

                  21st century




                  Chronicles of 21st Century-Republicanism (2000–Present), including Ghanaian presidential election, 2012.
                  Winning the 2000 Ghanaian elections, John Agyekum Kufuor of the New Patriotic Party (NPP) was sworn into office as president of Ghana in January 2001, and attained the presidency again in the 2004 Ghanaian elections, thus also serving two term of office term limit as president of Ghana and thus marking the first time under the fourth republic of Ghana that power had been transferred to one legitimately elected head of state and head of government to another.

                  Kufuor was succeeded to the presidency of the Republic of Ghana by John Atta Mills of the National Democratic Congress (NDC) following the Ghanaian presidential election, 2008 and John Atta Mills was inaugurated as the third president of the fourth republic of Ghana and eleventh president of Ghana on 7 January 2009, prior to John Atta Mills being succeeded as president of Ghana by then vice-president of Ghana John Dramani Mahama on 24 July 2012.

                  Following the Ghanaian presidential election, 2012 John Dramani Mahama became supreme commander-in-chief and John Dramani Mahama was inaugurated as the 4th President of the Fourth Republic of Ghana and 12th President of Ghana on 7 January 2013 to serve a one term of office of 4-years term length as supreme commander-in-chief and president of Ghana until 7 January 2017, and securing Ghana's status as a stable democracy.
                  6th Parliament of the 4th Republic


                  Parliament of Ghana
                    National Democratic Congress (148)
                    New Patriotic Party (123)
                    Convention People's Party (1)
                    Independents (3)
                  Ghana Presidential Election Result, 2012.jpg
                  Total275

                  Government

                  Main articles: Government of Ghana and Politics of Ghana
                  Parliament House of Ghana seat of the Government of Ghana, the Supreme Court of Ghana and Judiciary of Ghana buildings, Osu Castle is the defacto residence of presidency and the Flagstaff House is the official residence and presidential palace. First President of the Republic of Ghana Nkrumah and Supreme Commander-in-Chiefs of the 4th Republic of Ghana Rawlings; Kufuor; Mills and Mahama.
                  Ghana is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy with a parliamentary multi-party system and former alternating military occupation. Following alternating military and civilian governments in January 1993, the Ghana military government gave way to the Fourth Republic of Ghana after presidential elections and parliamentary elections in late 1992. The 1992 constitution of Ghana divides powers among a supreme commander-in-chief (President of Ghana), parliament (Parliament of Ghana), cabinet (Ministers of the Ghanaian Government), council of state (Ghanaian Council of State), and an independent judiciary (Judiciary of Ghana). The Government of Ghana is elected by universal suffrage. The Electoral Commission of Ghana announced that former Vice-President of Ghana, John Dramani Mahama won the Ghana presidential election, 2012 on 7 December 2012 and John Dramani Mahama was sworn in as the reigning President of Ghana on 7 January 2013 serving a 4-years term length that expires approximately on Saturday 7 January 2017 amidst announcement of electoral fraud.

                  The 2012 Failed States Index indicated that Ghana is ranked the 67th least failed state in the world and the 5th least failed state in Africa after Mauritius, 2nd Seychelles, 3rd Botswana, and 4th South Africa. Ghana ranked 112th out of 177 countries on the index. Ghana ranked as the 64th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in the world out of all 174 countries ranked and Ghana ranked as the 5th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in Africa out of 53 countries in the 2012 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. Ghana was ranked 7th in Africa out of 53 countries in the 2012 Ibrahim Index of African Governance. The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African government, based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to its citizens.

                  Foreign relations

                  Main article: Foreign relations of Ghana



                  Kofi Annan

                  Since independence, Ghana has been devoted to ideals of nonalignment and is a founding member of the non-aligned movement. Ghana favours international and regional political and economic co-operation, and is an active member of the United Nations and the African Union.

                  Ghana has a great relationship with the United States, all of the last three U.S presidents- Bill Clinton, George W Bush, and Barack Obama- have made diplomatic trips to Ghana. Many Ghanaian diplomats and politicians hold positions in international organisations. These include Ghanaian diplomat and former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, International Criminal Court Judge Akua Kuenyehia, former President Jerry John Rawlings and former President John Agyekum Kuffour who have both served as diplomats of the United Nations.

                  In September 2010, Ghana's former President John Atta Mills visited China on an official visit. Mills and China's former President Hu Jintao, marked the 50th anniversary of diplomatic ties between the two nations, at the Great Hall of the People on 20 September 2010. China reciprocated with an official visit in November 2011, by the Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China, Zhou Tienong who visited Ghana and met with Ghana's President John Dramani Mahama.

                  The Islamic Republic of Iran and the 6th President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad met with the 12th President of Ghana, John Dramani Mahama on 16 April 2013 to hold discussions with President John Dramani Mahama on strengthening the Non-Aligned Movement and also co–chair a bilateral meeting between the two countries Ghana and Iran at the Ghanaian presidential palace Flagstaff House. Government of Ghana reciprocated with an official state visit on 5 August 2013, by the Vice President of Ghana, Kwesi Amissah-Arthur whom met with the Vice President of Iran, Eshaq Jahangiri on the basis of autarky and possible bilateral trade at the Islamic Republic of Iran's presidential palace, Sa'dabad Palace.

                  Armed Forces

                  Main article: Ghana Armed Forces



                  Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) Military Technologies

                  In 1957, the Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) consisted of its headquarters, support services, three battalions of infantry and a reconnaissance squadron with armoured vehicles. Ghanaian Prime Minister and President Kwame Nkrumah aimed at rapidly expanding the GAF to support the United States of Africa ambitions. Thus in 1961, 4th and 5th Battalions were established, and in 1964 6th Battalion was established, from a parachute airborne unit originally raised in 1963.

                  Today, Ghana is a regional power and regional hegemony. In his book Shake Hands with the Devil, Canadian Forces commander Roméo Dallaire highly rated the GAF soldiers and military personnels.

                  The military operations and military doctrine of the GAF are conceptualized on the Constitution of Ghana, Supreme Commander-in-Chief of Ghana’s Law on Armed Force Military Strategy, and Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC) agreements to which GAF is attestator. GAF military operations are executed under the auspices and imperium of the Ministry of Defense (MoD) Minister for Defence.

                  Ghana maintains several research reactors ready on standby for the processing of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) into Tactical Nuclear Weapons (TNW). The "Kwabenya Nuclear Plant of Ghana" contains Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) sufficient to make a Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD). According to an article published by renowned political scientist, bioterrorism and nuclear weapons specialist Graham T. Allison for Boston Globe; Ghana has enough Enriched Uranium to produce a Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD). Entitled “We're still vulnerable”, Graham T. Allison speculates that; the orphaned research reactor "Kwabenya Nuclear Plant of Ghana" at Kwabenya, Greater Accra contains Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) sufficient to make a number of nuclear weapons such as Tactical Nuclear Weapons (TNW).

                  Law enforcement and police

                  Further information: Law enforcement in Ghana



                  Ghana Police Service in Mowag Piranhas and Armoured fighting vehicles
                  The Ghana Police Service (GPS) is the main law enforcement agency of the Republic of Ghana and responsible for the detection of crime, maintenance of law and order and the maintenance of internal peace and security. The Ghana Police Service has eleven specialized police units including a Rapid Deployment Force (RDF) and Marine Police Unit (MPU). The Ghana Police Service operates in twelve divisions: ten covering the ten regions of Ghana, one assigned specifically to the seaport and industrial hub of Tema, and the twelfth being the Railways, Ports and Harbours Division. The Ghana Police Service's Marine Police Unit and Division handles issues that arise from the country's offshore oil and gas industry.

                  The Ghana Prisons Service and the sub-division Borstal Institute for Juveniles administers incarceration in Ghana. Ghana retains and exercises the death penalty for treason, corruption, robbery, piracy, drug trafficking, rape, and homicide. 27 convicts (all men) were sentenced to death in Ghana in 2012 and the Ghana Prisons Service statistics of the total number of convicts sentenced to death in Ghana as at December 2012 was 162 men and 4 women, with a total prison inmate population of 13,983 convicts as at 22 July 2013.
                  The Narcotic Control Board



                  Ghana is among the sovereign states of West Africa used by drug cartels and drug traffickers (shown in orange).
                  Ghana has been used as a key narcotics industry transshipment point by traffickers. There is not wide popular knowledge about the narcotics industry and intercepted narcotics in Ghana due to the involvement of the black market.[citation needed] The social context within which narcotic trafficking, storage, transportation, and repacking systems exist in Ghana and the state's location along the Gulf of Guinea within the Atlantic Ocean – only a few degrees north of the Equator – makes Ghana an attractive country for the narcotics business.

                  The Narcotic Control Board (NACOB), in collaboration with an internal counterpart, has impounded container ships at the Sekondi Naval Base within the Takoradi Harbour. These ships were carrying millions of kilograms of the narcotic cocaine, with a street value running into billions of Ghana cedis. However, drug seizures saw a decline in 2011. Drug cartels are using new methods in narcotics production and narcotics exportation, in order to avoid Ghanaian security agencies. Income inequality, underdeveloped institutions and criminal justice system, porous open borders, and the existence of established smuggling organizations contribute to Ghana's position in the narcotics industry. John Atta Mills, president between 2009 and 2012, initiated ongoing efforts to reduce the role of airports in Ghana's drug trade.

                  Geography

                  Main article: Geography of Ghana



                  Geography of Ghana and Landscapes of Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta and Western regions of the Republic of Ghana.
                  Ghana is located on the Gulf of Guinea, only a few degrees north of the Equator, therefore giving it a warm climate. Ghana spans an area of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), and has an Atlantic coastline that stretches 560 kilometres (350 miles) on the Gulf of Guinea in Atlantic Ocean to its south. lies between latitudes 4° and 12°N, and longitudes 4°W and 2°E; and the Prime Meridian passes through Ghana, specifically through the industrial port town of Tema.
                  File:Boti Falls — Landscape (Video).ogv 
                  Theora Video of Geographical Landscape Waterfall and Tourist Attraction (Boti Falls) in the Eastern region of Ghana.
                  Ghana is geographically closer to the "centre" of the Earth than any other country in the World; even though the notional centre, (0°, 0°) is located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 614 km (382 mi) off the south-east coast of Ghana on the Gulf of Guinea.

                  Grasslands mixed with south coastal shrublands and forests dominate Ghana, with forest extending northward from the south-west coast of Ghana on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean 320 kilometers (200 miles) and eastward for a maximum of about 270 kilometers (170 miles) with the Kingdom of Ashanti or the southern part of Ghana being a primary location for mining of industrial minerals and timber.

                  Ghana encompasses plains, waterfalls, low hills, rivers, Lake Volta, the world's largest artificial lake, Dodi Island and Bobowasi Island on the south Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana. The northernmost part of Ghana is Pulmakong and the southernmost part of Ghana is Cape three points.

                  Climate

                  Main article: Climate of Ghana
                  The climate of Ghana is tropical and there are two main seasons: the wet season and the dry season.
                  Climate data for Ghana
                  MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
                  Record high °C (°F)31

                  (88)
                  32

                  (90)
                  32

                  (90)
                  32

                  (90)
                  32

                  (90)
                  29

                  (84)
                  27

                  (81)
                  27

                  (81)
                  29

                  (84)
                  30

                  (86)
                  31

                  (88)
                  31

                  (88)
                  32

                  (90)
                  Average high °C (°F)27.5

                  (81.5)
                  27.5

                  (81.5)
                  28

                  (82)
                  28

                  (82)
                  27

                  (81)
                  26

                  (79)
                  25

                  (77)
                  24

                  (75)
                  26

                  (79)
                  26

                  (79)
                  27

                  (81)
                  27

                  (81)
                  28

                  (82)
                  Average low °C (°F)23

                  (73)
                  23

                  (73)
                  24

                  (75)
                  24

                  (75)
                  23

                  (73)
                  23

                  (73)
                  22

                  (72)
                  21

                  (70)
                  22

                  (72)
                  22

                  (72)
                  23

                  (73)
                  23

                  (73)
                  21

                  (70)
                  Record low °C (°F)15

                  (59)
                  17

                  (63)
                  20

                  (68)
                  19

                  (66)
                  21

                  (70)
                  20

                  (68)
                  19

                  (66)
                  18

                  (64)
                  20

                  (68)
                  19

                  (66)
                  21

                  (70)
                  17

                  (63)
                  15

                  (59)
                  Rainfall mm (inches)16

                  (0.63)
                  37

                  (1.46)
                  73

                  (2.87)
                  82

                  (3.23)
                  145

                  (5.71)
                  193

                  (7.6)
                  49

                  (1.93)
                  16

                  (0.63)
                  40

                  (1.57)
                  80

                  (3.15)
                  38

                  (1.5)
                  18

                  (0.71)
                  787

                  (30.99)
                  Avg. rainy days2257111476894277
                   % humidity79777780828585838283807985
                  Mean monthly sunshine hours2142042232132111441421551712202402352,372
                  Source: Climatemps.com

                  Rivers

                  Main article: Rivers of Ghana
                  Ghana has a vast river system with an array of tributaries.
                  Panorama and landscape view of Lake Volta in Volta Basin and Eastern Region of Ghana. Lake Volta by artificial surface area is the largest reservoir in the world. Lake Volta drains into the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. Volta River has three main tributaries—the Black Volta, White Volta and Red Volta.

                  Wildlife

                  Main articles: Wildlife of Ghana and National parks of Ghana
                  Ghana has a beautiful array of wildlife that can be seen at zoos and national parks.

                  Administrative divisions

                  Main article: Administrative divisions of Ghana
                  Ghana is divided into 10 administrative regions, sub-divided into 275 districts:
                  Regions of GhanaArea (km²)Regional capitals
                  Ashanti Region24,389Kumasi


                  A clickable map of Ghana exhibiting its ten regions.
                  About this image



                  Ghana regional map
                  Ghana Topography.png
                  Ghana topography−topographic map
                  Ghana sat.png
                  Ghana satellite image from outer space
                  Brong-Ahafo Region39,557Sunyani
                  Central Region9,826Cape Coast
                  Eastern Region19,323Koforidua
                  Greater Accra Region3,245Accra
                  Northern Region70,384Tamale
                  Upper East Region8,842Bolgatanga
                  Upper West Region18,476Wa
                  Volta Region20,570Ho
                  Western Region23,941Sekondi-Takoradi

                  Largest cities
                  Aerial View of Kumasi in 2003.jpgIndependence Square, Accra, Ghana.JPGSekondi-Takoradi Shores.jpg
                  KumasiAccraSekondi-Takoradi
                  Ten largest cities
                  RankCityRegionPopulationRankCityRegionPopulation
                  1KumasiFlag of Ashanti Region.png Ashanti3,779,9796Cape CoastFlag of Central Region (Ghana).gif Central897,968
                  2AccraFlag of Greater Accra Region.gif Greater Accra2,995,4937ObuasiFlag of Ashanti Region.png Ashanti879,847
                  3Sekondi-TakoradiFlag of Western Region (Ghana).gif Western1,895,2478KoforiduaFlag of Eastern Region (Ghana).gif Eastern866,696
                  4TamaleNorthern1,764,6349TemaFlag of Greater Accra Region.gif Greater Accra428,742
                  5SunyaniFlag of Brong-Ahafo Region.gif
                  Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghana )
                  Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
                  Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

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